6 Vitamins and minerals essential for muscle health

Strong, healthy muscles are essential for more than just fitness enthusiasts; they are crucial for daily activities and overall health. Understanding the role of certain vitamins and minerals can enhance muscle health, helping you maintain strength and endurance as you age.

Declines in strength, muscle mass, and quality among older individuals significantly forecast the development of mobility limitations [1]. Many individuals seek the right vitamins and minerals for their muscle health.

This blog will highlight six key nutrients that play vital roles in muscle function and well-being, whether you are looking to boost your athletic performance or simply maintain muscle function as part of a healthy aging process.

It provides detailed information on how these vitamins and minerals support muscle health and how you can ensure you’re getting enough through your diet or supplements.

What vitamins and minerals are essential for muscle growth?

Maintaining strong, healthy muscles is crucial for everyone, whether you’re an athlete, a fitness enthusiast, or someone simply interested in staying active and healthy as you age. 

Along with regular exercise and proper hydration, certain vitamins and minerals contribute to muscle health. They help with everything from muscle contraction and relaxation to repair and growth. 

Essential nutrients like protein, Vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, potassium, Vitamin B12, and Omega-3 fatty acids are crucial in supporting muscle growth and repair.

These nutrients contribute to muscle strength, function, and overall health, making them vital components of a balanced diet for anyone looking to enhance their muscle growth and performance.

Here’s a closer look at six essential vitamins and minerals that are pivotal for muscle health.

1. Vitamin D

This powerhouse nutrient is essential for muscle strength, making it a key player for anyone looking to maintain or improve their muscle health. Surprisingly, our body can produce vitamin D all on its own when our skin gets enough sunlight [2]. 

However, with more time spent indoors and sunscreen use (which is crucial for other reasons), many of us might not be getting enough of this sunshine vitamin.

For those not getting their daily dose of sunlight, there are other ways to boost vitamin D levels:

  • Omega-3 fatty fish, such as mackerel and salmon, are excellent suppliers.
  • The gap can be filled in part by egg yolks and fortified foods, including milk, orange juice, and cereals.

Here’s why keeping an eye on your vitamin D intake is a good move:

  • It enhances muscle function, potentially reducing the risk of falls and muscle weakness, which is especially important as we age.
  • Vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium, another hero for muscle contractions and overall health.

Adults need about 600-800 IU per day, but this can vary. Considering a blood test can provide a clear picture of your vitamin D levels, consulting with a healthcare provider for personalized advice is a smart strategy.

2. Calcium

This essential mineral enables our muscles to contract properly, which is crucial for all bodily movements. Calcium‘s importance extends to the heart and the nervous system, where it helps to send and receive nerve signals that control muscle function.

Here are some top sources of calcium:

Dairy products:

  • Milk
  • Yogurt
  • Cheese (such as cheddar, mozzarella, and parmesan)
  • Cottage cheese
  • Greek yogurt
  • Ricotta cheese
  • Buttermilk

Leafy greens:

  • Kale
  • Spinach
  • Collard greens
  • Turnip greens
  • Bok choy
  • Swiss chard
  • Mustard greens

Fortified foods:

  • Plant milks
  • Fortified orange juice
  • Cereals
  • Fortified bread
  • Almond milk

Ensuring you get enough calcium is key:

  • It helps muscles contract and relax properly, reducing the risk of cramps and spasms.
  • It plays a part in the electrical conduction system of the heart, which relies on calcium to maintain its rhythm.

Most adults should aim for about 1,000 mg of calcium per day, with needs increasing for women over 50 and both men and women over 70. 

Given the variability in dietary restrictions and health conditions, it’s useful to discuss calcium needs with a healthcare provider to tailor your intake appropriately.

calcium rich foods

3. Magnesium

It plays a vital role in muscle contraction and relaxation, making it essential for overall muscular function. This mineral also helps manage energy production in muscle cells, ensuring your muscles have the fuel they need during both rest and exercise.

If you’re looking to boost your magnesium intake, here are some excellent sources:

  • Magnesium is abundant in nuts and seeds, particularly in almonds, pumpkin, and sunflower seeds [3].
  • Whole grains that are high in this crucial nutrient include quinoa and brown rice.
  • Rich in magnesium are also leafy green crops like spinach.
  • Legumes and bananas provide additional options to include more magnesium in your diet.

It’s beneficial to ensure adequate magnesium levels because:

  • It helps prevent muscle cramps and spasms by facilitating proper muscle relaxation.
  • It contributes to the production of protein essential for muscle repair and growth.

Adult men need about 400-420 mg of magnesium per day, while women require around 310-320 mg. Since many people don’t get enough magnesium from their diets, discussing your specific needs with a healthcare provider can be particularly helpful, especially if you are considering supplements.

4. Potassium

Potassium is vital for keeping your muscles working properly. It helps regulate fluid balance, nerve signals, and muscle contractions. 

Without enough potassium, you may experience muscle weakness and fatigue, which can significantly impact muscle health and overall physical performance.

Here are several great sources of potassium:

  • Bananas are well-known for their high potassium content and are a quick, easy snack.
  • Potatoes, particularly with the skin on, are another excellent source.
  • Leafy greens like spinach and kale, as well as avocados, are packed with this essential nutrient.
  • Beans and lentils not only provide potassium but also fiber and protein.

Potassium plays several key roles:

  • It aids in muscle contractions and helps maintain proper muscle function.
  • It works alongside sodium to maintain normal blood pressure and fluid balance.
  • It is crucial for heart function, helping to regulate the heartbeat.

Adults should aim for about 2,600 mg to 3,400 mg of potassium daily, depending on gender and overall health.

Since it’s possible to have too much potassium, which can be harmful, especially for people with kidney issues, it’s wise to discuss your potassium needs with a healthcare provider before making significant changes to your diet or taking supplements.

5. Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is essential for maintaining muscle health and overall vitality. It is essential for the healthy operation of the neurological system and is involved in the synthesis of DNA and red blood cells. 

This vitamin is especially crucial for maintaining and repairing muscles because it controls the production of red blood cells, which supply muscles with oxygen and improve recovery and endurance [4].

Here’s where you can find vitamin B12:

Animal products:

  • Meat
  • Fish
  • Poultry
  • Dairy

Fortified foods:

  • Fortified cereals
  • Plant milk
  • Nutritional yeast

The benefits of vitamin B12 include:

  • Supporting the health of nerve cells and is crucial for proper neurological function, which helps in muscle control.
  • Aiding in the formation of red blood cells, which transport oxygen throughout the body to sustain energy and performance.

Adults should aim for about 2.4 mcg of vitamin B12 daily. Since the body can store several years’ worth of this vitamin, deficiency is rare but can occur, especially in older adults and those with absorption issues or on strict vegan diets. 

If you’re concerned about your levels or dietary intake, consulting with a healthcare provider can provide guidance tailored to your needs.

6. Omega-3 fatty acids

But their benefits for muscle health are equally impressive. These fatty acids help reduce muscle soreness after exercise and can increase the rate of muscle recovery, making them a great addition for athletes and physically active individuals.

Here are the best sources of omega-3s:

Fatty fish:

  • Salmon
  • Mackerel
  • Sardines

Plant-based options:

  • Flaxseeds
  • Chia seeds
  • Walnuts


  • Fish oil
  • Algae supplements

The positive effects of Omega-3s on muscle health include:

  • Reducing inflammation, which can help lessen post-workout soreness and speed up recovery.
  • Supporting heart health, which improves cardiovascular capacity and overall physical performance.

There isn’t a set recommended daily intake for omega-3s, but a general guideline is about 1.1 to 1.6 grams per day. As with any supplement, it’s wise to discuss your specific needs with a healthcare provider, especially to balance omega-3 intake with other fats and your overall diet.

omega-3 capsules

What is the best way to incorporate vitamins and minerals into each day?

Ensuring a balanced intake of vitamins and minerals is essential for overall health and well-being. Here are some effective strategies to incorporate these nutrients into your daily routine:

  1. Eat a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Include a diverse range of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats in your meals to ensure you’re getting a wide array of vitamins and minerals.
  2. Plan balanced meals. Take time to plan your meals ahead, ensuring they are balanced and contain a mix of essential nutrients. Incorporate foods rich in vitamins and minerals, such as leafy greens, berries, nuts, seeds, and lean meats.
  3. Cook foods in different ways. Experiment with various cooking methods, like steaming, grilling, or roasting, to preserve the nutrient content of your foods. Avoid overcooking, which can lead to nutrient loss.
  4. Consider supplementation. If you have specific dietary restrictions or struggle to meet your nutritional needs through food alone, consider incorporating supplements into your routine. Consult with a healthcare provider to determine which supplements, if any, are right for you.
  5. Stay hydrated. Drink plenty of water throughout the day to support nutrient absorption and overall health. Opt for water over sugary beverages or excessive caffeine, which can hinder nutrient absorption.

You may simply add the necessary vitamins and minerals to your daily routine by following these easy steps, which will promote both muscle function and general health [5].

By following these simple yet effective tips, you can ensure you’re getting an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals each day, supporting your overall health and well-being. Remember to listen to your body’s needs and make adjustments as necessary to optimize your nutrition.

Closing thoughts

Ensuring you get the right vitamins and minerals is crucial for maintaining overall health and supporting muscle function.

By incorporating nutrient-rich foods into your daily diet and considering supplementation if needed, you can optimize your intake and reap the benefits of improved energy, strength, and vitality.

With these steps to prioritize your nutritional intake and stay active, you can support your muscle health and overall well-being for years to come. Small changes can make a big difference, so start implementing these strategies today to feel the benefits tomorrow.


Can I gain muscle without consuming protein supplements?

Yes, you can get enough protein from whole food sources like lean meats, eggs, dairy, legumes, and tofu to support muscle growth and repair.

What role does protein play in muscle health?

Protein is essential for muscle repair and growth, so consuming an adequate amount, about 0.8 to 1 gram per kilogram of body weight per day, supports muscle health.

Can I lose muscle if I don’t use it?

Yes, muscles can atrophy or shrink if they aren’t regularly used, emphasizing the importance of staying active and engaging in strength training exercises to maintain muscle mass.

How often should I exercise to maintain muscle health?

Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity per week, along with muscle-strengthening exercises on two or more days.

[1] https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2022.817044/full 
[2] https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/161618 
[3] https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/nuts-and-seeds 
[4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257642/ 
[5] https://familydoctor.org/vitamins-and-minerals-how-to-get-what-you-need/

Photograph: fxquadro/Envato
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