Alzheimer’s disease: Causes, symptoms, treatment options

Alzheimer’s disease, a progressive neurological disorder, continues to pose profound challenges to individuals, families, and communities worldwide. With millions of people affected by this enigmatic condition, understanding its intricacies is paramount.

In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore the depths of Alzheimer’s disease. Examining its definition and providing an overview of its historical background, prevalence, and impact on society. 

As we progress, we familiarize ourselves with the signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s, both in its early stages and as it progresses. We also look into the various stages of the disease, from mild cognitive impairment to late-stage Alzheimer’s, shedding light on the evolving nature of the condition.

What is Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most common neurological disorders that affect the brain, gradually impairing memory, cognitive functions, and behavior. 

This disease was named after the German psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer, who described it in 1906 as the most common form of dementia. The accumulation of abnormal protein fragments, called beta-amyloid plaques and tau tangles in the brain leads to the deterioration and death of brain cells [1].

The hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer’s include memory loss, confusion, disorientation, difficulty with language and communication, and changes in personality and behavior. 

As the disease progresses, individuals may experience challenges with daily tasks, loss of independence, and a decline in overall cognitive function.

Historical background

In the early 20th century, Alois Alzheimer’s groundbreaking work on the brain pathology of a woman named Auguste Deter provided the first insights into the disease. 

Since then, extensive research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms and risk factors associated with Alzheimer’s, leading to improved diagnostic methods and potential treatments.

The prevalence and impact of Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people worldwide, both directly and indirectly. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 55 million people are currently living with dementia globally, with Alzheimer’s being the primary cause in the majority of cases [2].

The prevalence of Alzheimer’s increases with age, and as the population ages, the impact of the disease becomes more significant. The burden on healthcare systems, caregivers, and families is substantial, emotionally and economically.

The prevalence and impact of Alzheimer’s
Photograph: bialasiewicz/Envato

What’s the science behind Alzheimer’s?

Brain anatomy and function

The human brain is an intricate organ responsible for controlling our thoughts, emotions, movements, and bodily functions. It comprises various regions, each with specific functions. Understanding the key structures and their roles provides insights into how Alzheimer’s affects cognitive abilities.

The cerebral cortex, the brain’s outer layer, is involved in higher-order functions like memory, language, attention, and perception. The hippocampus plays a critical role in memory formation and retrieval.

The amygdala influences emotions and emotional memories. The frontal lobes are associated with decision-making, problem-solving, and behavior regulation.

Neurological changes in Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by abnormal protein fragments in the brain, namely beta-amyloid plaques and tau tangles [3]. These pathological changes lead to the degeneration and death of brain cells, disrupting communication and impairing cognitive functions.

Beta-amyloid plaques are formed by the accumulation of beta-amyloid protein fragments, which clump together and interfere with neuronal signaling. Tau tangles, on the other hand, are twisted protein fibers that accumulate within neurons, disrupting their normal functioning.

These protein abnormalities disrupt the connections between neurons and contribute to the progressive decline in memory, thinking, and behavior seen in Alzheimer’s patients. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress further contribute to neuronal damage and degeneration.

Role of genetics

Genetics plays a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Certain gene variants, like the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, increase the risk of developing the disease [4]. 

The APOE gene has different forms or alleles, with the APOE ε4 allele being associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s.

However, it is important to note that genetics alone does not determine whether someone will develop Alzheimer’s. Environmental and lifestyle factors also play a significant role in disease progression.

Environmental and lifestyle factors

While genetics may predispose individuals to Alzheimer’s, environmental and lifestyle factors can modulate the risk and progression of the disease.

Factors like education, cognitive engagement, physical activity, diet, cardiovascular health, and social connections have been identified as potential influencers.

Engaging in mentally stimulating activities, maintaining a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and omega-3 fatty acids, regular exercise, managing cardiovascular risk factors, and maintaining social and cognitive engagement may contribute to brain health and potentially reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s.

What are the early warning signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s?

1. Memory loss

One of the hallmark signs of Alzheimer’s is memory loss which disrupts daily life. This may involve forgetting recently learned information, important dates or events and relying on memory aids or family members for reminders.

2. Difficulty problem solving

Individuals with Alzheimer’s may experience challenges in planning, solving problems, or following instructions. Once familiar tasks may become increasingly difficult.

3. Confusion and disorientation

People with Alzheimer’s may become disoriented in familiar places, lose track of time, and struggle to comprehend spatial relationships.

4. Language and communication problems

Alzheimer’s can affect an individual’s ability to find the right words, follow conversations, or participate in social interactions.

5. Poor judgment and decision-making

Individuals may exhibit poor judgment and decision-making skills, making uncharacteristic choices or falling victim to scams and financial exploitation.

6. Mood and personality changes

Alzheimer’s can lead to mood swings, depression, irritability, anxiety, and increased social withdrawal. Personality changes may be noticeable, with individuals becoming apathetic or exhibiting uncharacteristic behaviors.

7. Difficulty with familiar tasks

Routine tasks, such as cooking, managing finances, or operating familiar technology, may become increasingly challenging as the disease progresses.

8. Misplacing items

Individuals may frequently misplace items and struggle to retrace their steps or find them in unusual locations.

9. Challenges with visual perception

Alzheimer’s can impact visual perception, making it difficult to judge distances, determine colors, or interpret objects correctly.

10. Withdrawal from hobbies and social activities

A decline in participation and interest in previously enjoyed activities, hobbies, and social engagements may be observed.

What are the 7 stages of Alzheimer’s?

Alzheimer’s disease is typically categorized into seven stages that reflect the condition’s progression. These stages help provide a framework for understanding the changes and challenges individuals may experience throughout the disease. Progression can vary from person to person, and not everyone may go through all stages.

1. No impairment

In the initial stage, there are no noticeable cognitive impairments. The individual functions normally and does not exhibit any memory or thinking problems. Alzheimer’s is not typically diagnosed at this stage.

2. Very mild cognitive decline

In this stage, individuals may experience slight memory lapses often attributed to normal aging. These lapses may include forgetting familiar words or misplacing everyday objects. 

The changes are usually subtle and do not significantly impact daily functioning or independence. Again, a formal diagnosis of Alzheimer’s is unlikely during this stage.

3. Mild cognitive decline

In this stage, memory and thinking problems become noticeable to family members, close friends, and healthcare professionals conducting assessments. 

Symptoms may include difficulties with word recall, losing items more frequently, and difficulty concentrating. At this stage, individuals may also experience challenges with work or social activities.

4. Moderate cognitive decline

Stage 4 is often referred to as early-stage Alzheimer’s. Memory gaps and cognitive impairments become more pronounced and can interfere with daily functioning. 

Symptoms include difficulty with complex tasks such as managing finances or planning events. Individuals may struggle to remember recent events or conversations and exhibit mood or personality changes. Assistance may be required for certain activities.

5. Moderately severe cognitive decline

Individuals experience significant cognitive decline in this stage and require more substantial assistance. Memory impairments worsen, and individuals may become disoriented about time and place. 

They may struggle with basic tasks like dressing or meal preparation. Assistance is needed to maintain independence, although individuals can often still recognize and remember important personal details.

6. Severe cognitive decline

Stage 6, or middle-stage Alzheimer’s, represents a significant decline in cognitive abilities. Individuals may have difficulty remembering the names or faces of close family members and may require assistance with basic activities of daily living, like bathing or using the restroom. 

Personality changes, behavioral symptoms, and wandering tendencies can be more prominent. Supervised care becomes essential at this stage.

7. Very severe cognitive decline

Stage 7 is the most advanced stage of Alzheimer’s disease. Individuals lose the ability to communicate coherently or independently perform daily activities. 

They may require assistance with eating, mobility, and personal care. In the late stage of the disease, individuals may lose their ability to walk, sit up, or hold their heads steady. 

The decline in physical functioning and cognitive impairment necessitates round-the-clock care.

How is Alzheimer’s disease diagnosed?

Diagnosing Alzheimer’s involves a comprehensive evaluation considering medical history, cognitive assessments, and medical tests. 

Early detection and accurate diagnosis are crucial for effective management and planning of care. 

Cognitive assessments

Healthcare professionals use various tools and tests to evaluate an individual’s memory, thinking, and problem-solving abilities. These assessments may involve:

  • Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): A widely used test that assesses cognitive function, including orientation, attention, memory, language, and visuospatial skills.
  • Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): A more detailed assessment tool that evaluates cognitive domains, including memory, attention, language, visuospatial abilities, and executive functions.
  • Clock Drawing Test: This test requires individuals to draw a clock face, helping assess their visuospatial skills, attention, and executive functions.

These assessments provide valuable insights into an individual’s cognitive performance and aid in determining the presence and severity of cognitive impairment.

Medical tests and biomarkers
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Medical tests and biomarkers

While cognitive assessments are informative, additional medical tests and biomarkers can contribute to the diagnostic process.

These tests help rule out other potential causes of cognitive decline and provide evidence of the underlying biological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease. They may include:

  • Blood tests: Blood tests can help identify other conditions that may cause cognitive impairment, such as vitamin deficiencies, thyroid problems, or infections.
  • Neuroimaging: Brain imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans, can reveal structural changes in the brain, ruling out other causes and providing evidence of brain atrophy associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: PET scans can detect the presence of beta-amyloid plaques or tau tangles in the brain, providing valuable biomarker information to support an Alzheimer’s diagnosis.
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis: Lumbar puncture or a spinal tap can extract and analyze cerebrospinal fluid to detect specific biomarkers, such as beta-amyloid and tau proteins, associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

These medical tests and biomarkers, used with cognitive assessments, enhance diagnostic accuracy and help differentiate Alzheimer’s disease from other causes of cognitive decline.

Differential diagnosis

Differential diagnosis involves distinguishing Alzheimer’s disease from other conditions that may present with similar symptoms. Some conditions that may mimic Alzheimer’s include:

  • Other types of dementia: Differentiating Alzheimer’s from other forms of dementia, like vascular dementia or Lewy body dementia, requires a thorough evaluation of clinical symptoms and supporting diagnostic tests.
  • Mild cognitive impairment: Assessing whether an individual’s cognitive impairment falls within the range of normal aging or represents a more significant decline requiring an Alzheimer’s diagnosis.
  • Depression or anxiety: Mood disorders can sometimes manifest with cognitive symptoms. Differentiating between these conditions and Alzheimer’s is essential for appropriate treatment and management.

What are the risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease?


Advancing age is the most significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. The risk increases significantly after age 65, and the likelihood of developing the disease doubles approximately every five years thereafter.


Women have a higher overall risk of developing Alzheimer’s compared to men. This risk may be due to genetic, hormonal, and lifestyle factors.

Genetic predisposition

Individuals with a family history of Alzheimer’s have a higher risk of developing the disease. Specific genes, like the APOE ε4 allele, increase the risk but do not guarantee that someone will develop Alzheimer’s.

Genetic mutations

Rare genetic mutations, like those associated with early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease, can directly cause the condition. However, these mutations account for a small percentage of Alzheimer’s cases.

How to prevent Alzheimer’s?

While there is no guaranteed way to prevent Alzheimer’s disease, certain lifestyle modifications and risk reduction strategies can potentially reduce the risk or delay the onset of cognitive decline. 

Incorporating these preventive measures into daily life may contribute to overall brain health. Here are some strategies to consider:

  1. Engage in regular physical exercises, like aerobic activities or strength training, to help reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s. Exercise promotes cardiovascular health, increases blood flow to the brain, and stimulates the growth of new brain cells.
  2. Follow a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats (like those found in fish, nuts, and olive oil) to support brain health. The Mediterranean and DASH diets, in particular, have shown potential benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline.
  3. Keep the brain active and engaged through activities like reading, puzzles, learning new skills, or social interactions to help maintain cognitive function and potentially reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s.
  4. Manage cardiovascular risk factors, like high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, and obesity, through regular medical check-ups, medication, a healthy diet, and exercise to contribute to brain health and potentially reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s.
  5. Prioritize adequate and restful sleep to support overall brain health and cognitive function. Establishing a regular sleep schedule and practicing good sleep hygiene can promote healthy sleep patterns.

What is the best treatment for Alzheimer’s?

While there is currently no cure for Alzheimer’s, various treatment and management approaches can help improve quality of life, manage symptoms, and support individuals living with the condition. 

The treatment and management of Alzheimer’s involve a combination of medication, non-pharmacological interventions, and supportive care. Here are some key aspects to consider:

Medications and therapies

  • Cholinesterase inhibitors: These medications, such as donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine, work by boosting levels of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine in the brain, temporarily improving cognitive symptoms and function.
  • Memantine: This medication regulates glutamate, another neurotransmitter, and is commonly used in moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease to manage symptoms related to memory, thinking, and behavior.
  • Combination therapy: In some cases, cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine may be prescribed to provide greater symptom relief and cognitive support.
  • Other medications: Additional medications may be prescribed to manage specific symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s, such as depression, anxiety, agitation, or sleep disturbances.

Non-pharmacological interventions

  • Cognitive stimulation: Engaging individuals in cognitive-stimulating activities, puzzles, memory games, or music therapy can help maintain cognitive function and enhance overall well-being.
  • Physical exercise: Regular physical activity, tailored to individual capabilities, can positively affect physical and cognitive health. It may improve mood, sleep patterns, and overall quality of life.
  • Occupational therapy: Occupational therapists can help individuals with Alzheimer’s develop strategies to perform daily activities, maintain independence, and adapt to changing abilities.
  • Speech and language therapy: Speech and language therapists assist with communication difficulties, providing strategies to overcome challenges in speaking, understanding, and swallowing.

Supportive care and quality of life enhancement

  • Caregiver support and education: Caregivers play a vital role in supporting individuals with Alzheimer’s. Providing caregivers with resources, education, and support services can help them manage the challenges associated with caregiving.
  • Daily routine and structure: Establishing a predictable daily routine can help individuals with Alzheimer’s feel more secure and reduce confusion. Maintaining a consistent schedule for activities, meals, and rest can enhance overall well-being.
  • Safety measures: Implementing safety measures, such as removing tripping hazards, installing handrails, using medication organizers, and monitoring wandering behaviors, can help prevent accidents and ensure a safe living environment.
  • Social and emotional support: Maintaining social connections, participating in support groups, and accessing counseling services can provide emotional support for individuals with Alzheimer’s and their caregivers.
  • Nutritional support: Ensuring a balanced diet and adequate hydration is essential for overall health. Nutritional support and guidance from healthcare professionals can address specific dietary needs and challenges associated with Alzheimer’s.
  • End-of-life care planning: Engaging in advance care planning discussions and establishing healthcare directives can help ensure that an individual’s wishes are respected as the disease progresses.

Regular communication with healthcare professionals and a person-centered approach is key in tailoring care plans to meet individual needs and enhance the overall quality of life.

What are the most recent advancements in Alzheimer’s treatment and research?

Alzheimer’s disease research is an active and dynamic field, with ongoing efforts to understand the disease better, develop innovative treatments, and improve diagnostic methods. 

Significant advancements and breakthroughs have been made, offering hope for the future. Here are some areas of current research and notable developments:

What are the most recent advancements in Alzheimer's treatment and research?
Photograph: LightFieldStudios/Envato

Biomarkers and early detection

Researchers are exploring using biomarkers, such as beta-amyloid and tau proteins, in blood tests and imaging techniques to improve early detection and diagnosis of Alzheimer’s [5]. 

These biomarkers may help identify individuals at risk or in the preclinical stages of the disease, allowing for earlier interventions and potential future disease-modifying treatments.

Immunotherapy and anti-amyloid treatments

Immunotherapy approaches, including monoclonal antibodies, aim to target and remove beta-amyloid plaques from the brain [6]. 

Several clinical trials are underway to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of these treatments. While challenges remain, these studies offer promise in slowing down or halting the progression of Alzheimer’s.

Precision medicine and genetic studies

Advancements in genetic research have uncovered additional risk genes associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Studies are underway to understand the genetic underpinnings of the condition, identify potential therapeutic targets, and develop personalized treatment approaches [7]. 

Precision medicine approaches may allow for more targeted interventions based on an individual’s genetic profile.

Non-pharmacological interventions

Non-pharmacological interventions, like cognitive training, physical exercise, and lifestyle modifications, continue to be areas of focus in research. 

Studies are investigating the effects of these interventions on cognitive function, brain health, and the potential for reducing the risk of Alzheimer’s or slowing its progression.

Technology and digital tools

Emerging technologies, including artificial intelligence, wearable devices, and digital tools, show promise in aiding early detection, monitoring disease progression, and supporting individuals with Alzheimer’s and their caregivers. 

These tools may assist in cognitive assessments, provide medication or daily activities reminders, and offer cognitive training programs.

Combination therapies

Combining different treatment approaches, such as medications targeting multiple pathways involved in Alzheimer’s, shows potential in clinical trials. 

Researchers are exploring the effectiveness of combination therapies to enhance treatment outcomes and maximize symptom management.

Brain health and lifestyle factors

Studies highlight the importance of maintaining overall brain health and addressing lifestyle factors. 

Research focuses on understanding the impact of factors like diet, exercise, sleep, social engagement, and cognitive stimulation on reducing the risk of Alzheimer’s and promoting cognitive resilience.

As research in Alzheimer’s disease advances, breakthroughs and discoveries can transform our understanding and approach to the disease. 

Ongoing studies and clinical trials provide optimism for developing novel treatments, improved diagnostic methods, and enhanced support for individuals with Alzheimer’s and their caregivers.

Closing thoughts

The science behind Alzheimer’s reveals intricate neurological changes, genetic predispositions, and the influence of lifestyle and environmental factors. 

While we cannot currently prevent or cure Alzheimer’s, research breakthroughs offer hope for the future, with advancements in early detection, innovative therapies, and personalized interventions on the horizon.

Furthermore, preventive strategies like regular exercise, a healthy diet, staying mentally and socially active, and managing chronic conditions contribute to brain health. They may help reduce the risk or delay the onset of cognitive decline.


What age can Alzheimer’s disease start?

Alzheimer’s disease can start as early as the age of 30, although it is more commonly diagnosed in individuals over the age of 65.

Can Alzheimer’s be cured?

As of now, there is no known cure for Alzheimer’s disease. However, ongoing research and clinical trials offer hope for future breakthroughs in developing effective treatments and potential disease-modifying interventions.

How long do Alzheimer’s patients live?

The life expectancy of people with Alzheimer’s can differ based on factors like age of onset, overall health, and disease progression. On average, individuals may live from 4 to 8 years after the initial diagnosis, although some can live with the disease for as long as 20 years.

Why does Alzheimer’s cause death?

Alzheimer’s disease can lead to the loss of bodily functions and increase the vulnerability to infections and complications.


Photograph: LightFieldStudios/Envato
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