Brain training: Benefits, techniques, exercises, myths and facts

Today, it is essential to prioritize our cognitive health in addition to physical fitness. Brain training, often regarded as mental gymnastics, offers a proactive approach to maintaining and enhancing cognitive abilities.

It encompasses various exercises and techniques to bolster memory, focus, and overall brain function. 

With an increasing body of research underscoring its manifold benefits, brain training has emerged as a crucial tool for the aging population and everyone aiming to achieve optimal mental performance.

This comprehensive guide explores the intricacies of brain training: its advantages, methods, myths, and realities.

What is brain training?

Brain training, often likened to a workout for the mind, refers to a set of cognitive exercises designed to enhance and maintain various mental skills. 

Just as physical exercises target specific muscle groups, brain training activities focus on improving specific cognitive functions such as memory, attention, problem-solving, and processing speed. 

These exercises can range from traditional puzzles like Sudoku and crosswords to advanced digital apps designed using neuroscientific principles. 

The underlying concept is rooted in the idea of neuroplasticity – the brain’s remarkable ability to reorganize and form new neural connections throughout one’s life. 

By consistently challenging the brain, these exercises promote adaptability and resilience in cognitive functions. 

As brain training gains traction, it’s seen not only as a tool for cognitive enhancement in healthy individuals but also as a supportive method for rehabilitation in various neurological conditions.

Benefits of brain training

Numerous studies suggest that our brains, much like muscles, can be trained and improved with proper exercise. 

This realization has driven many individuals to explore ways to stimulate their minds and optimize cognitive function. Here are some notable benefits of engaging in brain training:

Improves memory and recall

One of the most significant benefits of brain training is enhanced memory. Regularly challenging the brain with cognitive exercises can fortify the connections between neurons, making recalling information more efficient. 

For instance, memory games not only help in short-term recall but also in long-term retention of information.

Enhances cognitive functions
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Enhances cognitive functions

Beyond just memory, brain training can elevate other cognitive functions. Exercises designed to bolster problem-solving skills, critical thinking, spatial reasoning, and attention to detail can improve performance in everyday tasks and professional challenges. 

Over time, these improvements can make activities that were once difficult seem significantly easier.

Delays cognitive decline

As we age, our cognitive abilities naturally decline. However, consistent brain training can act as a buffer, slowing down this decline.

A study published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society found that older adults who engaged in cognitive training exhibited improvements in brain function, suggesting a delay in the onset of cognitive decline associated with aging [1].

Boosts focus and concentration

In the age of constant digital distractions, maintaining focus on a single task can be challenging. Brain training can assist in enhancing one’s concentration and focus levels.

By regularly engaging in exercises that demand undivided attention, individuals can better tune out distractions in other areas of their lives.

Elevates mood and mental well-being

Mental exercises, just like physical exercises, can trigger the release of endorphins — the body’s natural mood elevators. Furthermore, accomplishing challenging cognitive tasks can boost self-confidence and provide a sense of achievement.

This elevation in mood and confidence can indirectly act as a deterrent against mood disorders like depression.

Improves multitasking skills

Some brain training exercises specifically target the ability to juggle multiple tasks efficiently. Regularly practicing these can lead to an enhanced ability to multitask without feeling overwhelmed or making errors.

Better reaction time

Action-packed video games and rapid puzzle-solving tasks are known to enhance one’s reaction time. This not only benefits gamers or athletes but also everyday individuals, aiding them in situations that require quick decision-making.

Supports rehabilitation

Brain training has found its place in medical rehabilitation, too. For patients recovering from brain injuries or strokes, tailored cognitive exercises can be instrumental in regaining lost functions or improving diminished skills.

Strengthens creativity and innovation

Exercises that challenge the mind to think outside the box can stimulate creativity. Whether solving puzzles that demand unconventional solutions or exploring new ways to approach challenges, these activities push the brain into uncharted territories, fostering innovation.

Greater neuroplasticity

Neuroplasticity refers to the brain’s ability to reorganize and form new neural connections throughout life. Brain training exercises promote this plasticity, ensuring that the brain remains adaptable and resilient [2].

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Effective brain training techniques to boost cognitive function

Brain training techniques are vast and varied. Each approach targets different cognitive domains, but all share the overarching goal of optimizing mental function. Here’s a breakdown of some of the most prominent techniques employed for brain training:

Mental visualization

This technique involves creating mental images to enhance memory and comprehension. For example, when trying to remember a list, one might create a vivid storyline that connects all items. It not only aids memory but also fosters creativity.

Logic puzzles and brain games

Games such as Sudoku, crosswords, or chess require the brain to employ logic, strategic planning, and pattern recognition. Such games stimulate multiple cognitive processes and are readily accessible.

Mindfulness and meditation

Contrary to the active nature of many brain exercises, mindfulness and meditation focus on calming the mind. Through these practices, one learns to focus attention, control wandering thoughts, and improve emotional regulation.

Over time, consistent meditation can result in increased gray matter density in the brain, specifically in regions related to attention and sensory processing.

Continuous learning

Picking up new skills or knowledge areas is a potent form of brain training. Learning a new language, for instance, requires the brain to grasp new vocabulary, grammar, and often a different script.

Similarly, picking up a musical instrument enhances auditory and motor skills, along with improving patience and concentration.

Physical activities

It might seem counterintuitive, but physical exercises can be highly beneficial for the brain. Activities like dancing, tai chi, or even juggling enhance coordination, rhythm, and spatial awareness. Aerobic exercises, like walking and running, boost blood flow to the brain and can improve cognitive function and possibly delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases.

Neurofeedback and biofeedback

These techniques involve using electronic monitoring to convey information about physiological processes [3].

By receiving real-time data about brainwave patterns (in neurofeedback) or other biological markers (in biofeedback), individuals can learn to self-regulate and modify their brain activity or physiological responses for improved performance [3].

Brainwave entrainment

Techniques like binaural beats or isochronic tones involve playing sound frequencies to guide the brain into specific states [4]. For example, a frequency meant to induce calmness can help the listener achieve a meditative state more quickly.

Nootropics and cognitive enhancers

While not a standalone training technique, certain supplements, known as nootropics, claim to enhance cognitive function. These can be natural, like Ginkgo biloba, or synthetic.

However, it’s essential to approach them with caution and seek medical advice, as the long-term effects of many are not yet thoroughly researched.

Social interaction

Engaging in stimulating conversations, debates, or group learning exercises can be an effective way to challenge the brain. Social interactions force us to think critically, understand diverse perspectives, and employ empathy – all vital cognitive functions.

Artistic endeavors

Creative activities, whether painting, writing, sculpting, or any other art form, stimulate the brain in unique ways. They encourage free thinking, enhance fine motor skills, and can be a source of emotional release.

Incorporating a mix of these techniques into one’s routine can be the most beneficial approach. Just as in physical training, where cross-training (mixing various forms of exercise) proves effective, a diversified cognitive exercise regimen challenges the brain in multiple ways, ensuring comprehensive development. 

Moreover, consistency is key. Just as muscles weaken when not regularly exercised, cognitive gains can diminish without ongoing training. However, with dedication, these techniques can pave the way to a sharper, more agile mind, irrespective of age.

Artistic endeavors
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Brain exercises to boost brain power

The brain, often termed the body’s most powerful “muscle”, thrives on exercise. Just as different workouts target different physical muscles, various cognitive exercises can hone in on specific mental faculties. Here are some exercises designed to stimulate and boost brain power:

Memory-enhancing games

  • Memory card games: Turn a deck of cards facedown and try to find matching pairs from memory. As you get better, increase the number of cards.
  • Number sequencing: Challenge yourself to remember longer and longer strings of numbers. Start with a sequence of five and add one number each time you successfully recall the sequence.

Logic and problem-solving puzzles

  • Sudoku: This popular game involves filling a 9×9 grid so that each column, each row, and each of the nine 3×3 grids contains all of the digits from 1 to 9.
  • Crosswords: A classic word puzzle that not only boosts vocabulary but also enhances lateral thinking.

Brain-boosting apps and software

  • Lumosity: A well-researched app offering a plethora of games targeting different cognitive domains.
  • Peak: Featuring over 40 games aimed at improving mental agility, emotion control, and problem-solving abilities.

Music-based exercises

  • Learning an instrument: Mastering an instrument sharpens concentration, improves auditory skills, and enhances coordination between hands and eyes.
  • Active listening: Listen to a piece of music, preferably classical, and then try to recall and note down the sequence of instruments or the structure of the melody.

Language learning exercises

  • Duolingo or Rosetta Stone: Use these platforms to start learning a new language, which boosts memory, listening skills, and cultural understanding.
  • Flashcards: Create vocabulary flashcards for a language you’re learning and test yourself regularly.

Physical coordination activities

  • Juggling: Starting with two balls and progressing to more can enhance hand-eye coordination and concentration.
  • Ping Pong: This fast-paced game can significantly improve reaction times and spatial awareness.

Meditative practices

  • Focused breathing: Concentrate solely on your breath, taking deep, even breaths and exhaling slowly. It enhances focus and relaxation.
  • Guided meditation: Use apps like Calm or Headspace to follow structured meditation exercises, promoting mindfulness and stress relief.

Creative Writing

  • Journaling: Documenting daily experiences or emotions can be therapeutic and boost reflective thinking.
  • Storytelling: Craft a short story, pushing your imaginative limits. Over time, try creating more complex narratives with deeper characters.

Spatial navigation tasks

  • Mazes: Physically navigating a maze or solving a paper-based one challenges spatial reasoning and memory.
  • Virtual reality games: Modern VR games, where you navigate virtual worlds, can stimulate spatial intelligence and coordination.

Sensory stimulation exercises

  • Taste testing: Blindfold yourself and try to identify different flavors or foods. It sharpens taste buds and reinforces memory.
  • Textural exploration: With eyes closed, feel various objects and textures, then attempt to describe or identify them. This enhances tactile senses and descriptive skills.
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Debunking myths about brain training

Brain training, like many popular concepts that promise improvement and wellness, has its fair share of myths and misconceptions. These myths can often distort the true value and potential of brain training, leading individuals astray. Let’s debunk some of these prevailing myths:

1. Brain training games instantly boost IQ

  • Reality: While certain cognitive exercises can improve specific skills such as memory or attention, there’s no concrete evidence that they can lead to a generalized increase in intelligence or IQ. Improvements are often task-specific.

2. Older adults cannot benefit from brain training

  • Reality: Contrary to this belief, older adults can benefit significantly from cognitive exercises. Brain training can slow cognitive decline and enhance various skills, even if started later in life.

3. More training equals more benefits

  • Reality: Just as over-exercising physically can lead to burnout or injuries, excessive cognitive training can lead to fatigue and stress. It’s about quality and consistency, not excessive quantity.

4. All brain training apps are backed by science

  • Reality: While some apps are developed based on scientific principles and research, many others are designed purely for entertainment. It’s essential to choose platforms that have credible research backing their efficacy.

5. Brain training alone can prevent dementia

  • Reality: While regular cognitive stimulation can potentially delay the onset of symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases like dementia [5], it’s not a guaranteed shield against such conditions. A combination of a healthy lifestyle, diet, physical activity, and mental stimulation is the best preventive approach.

6. Young people don’t need brain training

  • Reality: Brain training isn’t just for the elderly or those experiencing cognitive decline. Young individuals can benefit by enhancing their cognitive skills, boosting focus, and improving multitasking abilities.

7. If you’re good at brain games, you’re intelligent

  • Reality: Excelling at a brain game typically means you’re good at that specific task. It doesn’t necessarily correlate with overall intelligence or proficiency in other cognitive areas.
If you're good at brain games, you're intelligent
Photograph: Juan_Algar/Envato

8. Traditional learning isn’t as effective as digital brain training

  • Reality: Traditional learning methods, like reading, problem-solving, or engaging in discussions, are potent forms of cognitive stimulation. Digital platforms offer an alternative, not necessarily a superior approach.

9. You only need brain training if you have cognitive issues

  • Reality: While those with cognitive impairments might find brain training beneficial in rehabilitation, healthy individuals can also harness these exercises for enhancement and prevention.

10. Brain training is just a modern fad

  • Reality: The concept of stimulating the mind to improve its function isn’t new. Traditional puzzles, games, and learning methods are age-old practices. The digital ‘brain training’ is just a contemporary iteration.

Facts about brain training

Brain training is surrounded by both enthusiastic endorsements and skeptical criticisms. Amidst the cacophony of opinions, it’s important to focus on facts rooted in scientific research and empirical evidence. Here are some researched facts about brain training:

1. Neuroplasticity is real

  • Fact: The brain possesses the ability to reorganize itself, forming new neural connections throughout life. This adaptability, known as neuroplasticity, forms the foundation for the efficacy of brain training.

2. Specificity is key

  • Fact: Training in a specific cognitive domain usually leads to improvement in that specific area. For example, practicing memory games will primarily improve memory but may not enhance other cognitive functions like reasoning.

3. Consistency matters

  • Fact: Regular, consistent practice yields better results in brain training. Just like physical exercise, intermittent or irregular training is less effective than a consistent regimen.

4. Transfer effects are limited

  • Fact: While there are benefits to specific tasks being practiced, the transfer of these benefits to untrained tasks (general cognitive enhancement) is still a topic of debate among neuroscientists.

5. Brain training can aid rehabilitation

  • Fact: For patients recovering from brain injuries or strokes, customized cognitive exercises have shown positive results in aiding rehabilitation and recovery [6].

6. Cognitive reserve can be built

  • Fact: Engaging in intellectually stimulating activities throughout life, including brain training exercises, can contribute to building a cognitive reserve, which may delay the onset of dementia symptoms.

7. Not all apps are created equal

  • Fact: While the market is flooded with apps claiming to boost brainpower, only a handful are designed based on robust scientific principles. It’s crucial to differentiate between evidence-backed platforms and mere entertainment apps.

8. Combining physical and mental exercise is beneficial

  • Fact: Research suggests that a combination of physical activity (like aerobic exercises) and cognitive training can be more effective in enhancing cognitive functions than either activity alone.

9. Brain training has mental health benefits

  • Fact: Beyond cognitive enhancement, consistent brain training can also help in managing stress, anxiety, and symptoms of depression. For instance, mindfulness exercises can significantly improve emotional regulation.

10. Variety enhances efficacy

  • Fact: Engaging in a variety of cognitive exercises, rather than repetitively focusing on one, can be more beneficial. Diverse challenges stimulate multiple regions of the brain, promoting holistic development.

11. Social interaction amplifies benefits

  • Fact: Combining brain training with social interaction, like playing strategic games with others or engaging in group learning exercises, can amplify cognitive benefits. Social engagement is itself a potent cognitive stimulant.

12. Brain training is not a panacea

  • Fact: While brain training has its merits, it’s not a magic solution to all cognitive challenges. It’s most effective when integrated into a comprehensive approach to mental well-being, involving a balanced diet, physical activity, social interactions, and proper sleep.

Closing thoughts

Brain training, at its core, is an invitation to tap into the remarkable adaptability and resilience of our minds.

Through various techniques, exercises, and informed approaches, we can harness the potential of neuroplasticity, enhancing cognitive functions and overall mental well-being. 

However, as with all wellness practices, it’s essential to approach brain training with a balanced perspective, recognizing both its vast potential and its limitations. It isn’t a magic wand, but rather a tool in our broader toolkit for lifelong learning, cognitive health, and mental vitality. 

By dispelling myths, embracing evidence-backed practices, and integrating brain training into a holistic lifestyle, we can journey towards a future where our minds remain sharp, agile, and enriched, regardless of age or circumstance. 

Embrace the journey of brain training not just as a task, but as an enriching experience for lifelong cognitive growth.


Does brain training really work?

Brain training can enhance specific cognitive skills like memory, attention, and problem-solving when practiced consistently. However, its effects on broader intelligence or preventing cognitive diseases are still subjects of ongoing research and debate.

What can brain training do?

Brain training can help improve specific cognitive functions, such as memory, focus, and problem-solving, through targeted exercises. Consistent practice can lead to better performance in these areas and may contribute to overall mental agility and cognitive resilience.

Why is brain exercise important?

Brain exercise is important because it stimulates neuroplasticity, enhancing cognitive functions and mental agility. Regular cognitive stimulation can delay cognitive decline, promote sharper thinking, and improve overall brain health.

Does brain training improve mental health?

Brain training can contribute to improved cognitive functions, which may have positive effects on mental well-being and self-esteem. While it can complement mental health practices, it’s not a standalone treatment for psychological disorders.

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