Deadlifts: Benefits, exercise, techniques, variations, mistakes

The deadlift is considered the ultimate compound exercise and is a fundamental component of strength training.

It began as a simple act of lifting a motionless weight off the ground and has since evolved over centuries to become a prevalent exercise in fitness programs across the globe.

Serving both functional and aesthetic purposes, the deadlift tests raw strength while sculpting a powerful physique. Yet, for all its prominence, mastering its technique remains elusive to many. 

This guide explores deadlifting, covering benefits, techniques, variations, and mistakes to maximize potential.

What is deadlifting?

Deadlifting is a foundational strength-training exercise that involves lifting a weighted barbell or dumbbell from a resting position on the ground to hip level and then lowering it back down. 

Rooted in the simple act of picking up a ‘dead’ weight, hence its name, the movement mirrors many of our day-to-day lifting motions.

Unlike many exercises that isolate specific muscle groups, the deadlift is a compound exercise, engaging multiple muscles simultaneously [1]. 

This includes the hamstrings, glutes, lower and upper back, core, forearms, and traps. Its comprehensive nature makes it one of the most effective exercises for building overall strength. 

The deadlift not only challenges the body but also the mind, demanding focus, discipline, and technique.

Whether using it as a measure of raw power in powerlifting competitions or incorporating it into general fitness routines, the deadlift stands out as a pinnacle of strength exercises.

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Benefits of deadlifting

In the world of strength training, few exercises can match the multifaceted advantages of the deadlift. Here’s a closer look into why the deadlift holds such a revered position in fitness:

1. Engage multiple muscles simultaneously

Deadlifts are a compound movement, meaning they engage multiple muscle groups simultaneously.

From the powerful glutes and hamstrings in your lower body, to the erector spinae running along your spine, and even your forearm muscles responsible for gripping the bar, deadlifts offer a full-body workout.

Not to forget, the stabilizing role played by the core, lats, and traps ensures holistic muscle development.

Apply functional strength in real-world scenarios

2. Apply functional strength in real-world scenarios

Unlike some exercises that isolate specific muscles, deadlifts replicate natural, everyday movements.

Think about the act of lifting a heavy box from the ground or picking up a child. By training with deadlifts, you develop functional strength that aids in daily activities, ensuring you move more efficiently and safely.

3. Enhances metabolic rate and fat burning

Because of its intense nature and the engagement of large muscle groups, deadlifting boosts your metabolic rate.

This increased metabolism means you burn calories at an accelerated pace, even after you’ve finished working out, leading to efficient fat loss when combined with a balanced diet.

4. Improves bone density

Resistance training, especially with substantial weights involved in deadlifting, stimulates bone growth and increases bone density. This can play a crucial role in combating conditions like osteoporosis, especially as one age.

5. Builds mental resilience and discipline

There’s a certain mental tenacity required to lift a heavy barbell off the ground. This mental challenge, faced and overcome repetitively, builds psychological resilience.

The discipline needed to perfect form and consistently train instills a mindset that can benefit various facets of life.

6. Improves posture and spinal health

When done with correct form, deadlifting strengthens the back muscles, particularly those surrounding the spine. This strength translates to an improved posture and reduced chances of back pain.

Moreover, lifting and supporting heavy weights trains your intervertebral discs and ligaments, enhancing overall spinal health.

7. Boosts hormonal production

Deadlifts stimulate the production of testosterone and growth hormone – two essential hormones for muscle growth and overall health. Both men and women can benefit from these hormonal boosts, aiding in muscle development, fat loss, and improved energy levels.

How to deadlift with proper form and technique

Mastering the deadlift is as much an art as a display of sheer strength. Proper technique and form are crucial, not only to maximize gains but to prevent injuries [2]. Here’s a step-by-step guide to perfecting your deadlift technique:

1. Setup

  • Foot position: Stand with your feet hip-width apart, with your toes pointing slightly outward. The barbell should cut across the middle of your feet.
  • Grip: Grasp the bar just outside your knees. You can opt for an overhand grip (both palms facing you) or a mixed grip (one palm facing you and the other facing away). Grip strength is vital, so choose what feels most secure.
  • Breathing and bracing: Before lifting, take a deep breath in, filling your diaphragm, then brace your core as if you’re preparing to take a punch. This intra-abdominal pressure protects your spine during the lift.

2. The pull

  • Leg initiation: Begin the movement by pushing through your heels. This ensures you’re driving the lift with your legs, not your back.
  • Bar proximity: Keep the bar close to your body. It should travel in a straight vertical line as you rise.
  • Engaging the lats and core: As you lift, your lats (the broadest muscles in your back) and core should remain engaged. Think of squeezing oranges in your armpits – this visualization can help activate the lats.

3. The lockout

  • Hip drive: Once the bar passes your knees, drive your hips forward to stand up straight.
  • Finishing position: Your chest should be upright, shoulders back, and glutes engaged. Avoid hyperextending or leaning backward.

As you lower the weight, maintain the same bar proximity to your body and control the descent. Remember, every repetition is an opportunity to refine your form. Prioritize technique over weight, especially as you’re learning, to reap the maximum benefits and ensure your safety.

6 Best deadlift variations 

The deadlift’s fundamental movement has spawned a myriad of variations tailored to target specific muscle groups, cater to individual biomechanics, or meet the demands of various sports and activities. Let’s explore some of the most popular and effective deadlift variations:

1. Conventional deadlift

The traditional form, the conventional deadlift, is the most commonly practiced variation.

  • Basics: Stand with your feet hip-width apart. Your hands grip the barbell outside of your knees.
  • Benefits: This deadlift provides a balanced engagement of the hamstrings, glutes, and back muscles. It’s often used as a measure in powerlifting competitions.
  • Best for: Those with average limb lengths and no significant mobility issues.

2. Sumo deadlift

The sumo deadlift modifies the conventional stance for a wider, more “sumo wrestler” like positioning.

  • Basics: Feet are spread out wider than hip-width, with toes pointing slightly outward. The grip is inside the knees.
  • Benefits: It reduces the range of motion, potentially allowing for heavier lifts. It also emphasizes the glutes, quads, and inner thighs more than the conventional variation.
  • Best for: Individuals with longer torsos and shorter arms. It’s also preferred by some powerlifters because it might allow for lifting heavier weights due to the shorter range.

3. Romanian deadlift (RDL)

The RDL focuses more on the posterior chain’s muscles, particularly the hamstrings and glutes [3].

  • Basics: Starting from a standing position with the bar in hand, hinge at the hips while maintaining a slight bend in the knees. Lower the barbell as far as your flexibility allows without rounding the back, then lift.
  • Benefits: This variation intensely targets the hamstrings and reinforces the hip hinge movement, crucial for many athletic activities.
  • Best for: Those looking to isolate and build the hamstrings and glutes. It’s also excellent for athletes seeking improved hip mobility and strength.

4. Stiff-legged deadlift

This version is similar to the RDL but with a more significant emphasis on the back and less on the hamstrings.

  • Basics: As the name suggests, the legs remain more rigid, with only a minimal bend at the knees. This form places a more pronounced stretch on the hamstrings and a more significant load on the lower back.
  • Benefits: It’s an excellent exercise for targeting the spinal erectors, helping to build a solid and resilient lower back.
  • Best for: Those wanting to strengthen their back muscles and improve hamstring flexibility. However, caution is needed, especially for those with existing back issues.

5. Trap bar deadlift (Hex bar deadlift)

This variation uses a hexagonal bar that the lifter stands inside, allowing for a different grip and lift angle.

  • Basics: The hands grip the handles of the hex bar at one’s sides, leading to a more upright torso during the lift.
  • Benefits: It’s often seen as a hybrid between a squat and a deadlift. The trap bar deadlift places less stress on the lumbar spine while providing many of the strength benefits of traditional deadlifting.
  • Best for: Beginners, those with back issues, or athletes seeking to build explosive power for sports like football or basketball.

6. Deficit and block pulls

These variations alter the range of motion of the conventional deadlift by either increasing it (deficit) or decreasing it (block).

  • Basics: Stand on an elevated surface (like a plate or platform) for deficit deadlifts to increase the range. For block pulls, the weight is elevated on blocks or platforms.
  • Benefits: Deficit pulls challenge the bottom portion of the lift and increase leg drive. Block pulls focus on the top portion, allowing for heavier lifting and training the lockout phase.
  • Best for: Powerlifters and strength athletes looking to overcome specific sticking points in their deadlift or focus on particular lift phases.
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Nutrition and deadlifting

Deadlifting, renowned for its demanding nature, doesn’t just challenge your muscles; it necessitates a robust nutritional plan to fuel, repair, and optimize every lift. Let’s explore the vital connection between nutrition and this powerful exercise.

1. The role of nutrition in strength training

Deadlifting is energy-intensive. Every time you lift, you’re challenging your muscles and depleting energy stores.

Nutrition acts as the bedrock, ensuring you have the energy to perform and the resources to recover. 

Consuming the right balance of macronutrients – carbohydrates, proteins, and fats – fuels your workouts and fosters muscle growth and repair.

2. Pre-workout meals: timing and composition

  • Carbohydrates: They are your body’s primary energy source. Before a deadlifting session, focus on complex carbs like whole grains, oatmeal, or brown rice. These provide a sustained energy release, helping you power through your sets.
  • Proteins: A moderate amount of protein before lifting can set the stage for muscle repair and growth. Consider lean sources like chicken, tofu, or a protein shake.
  • Fats: While not the primary energy source for high-intensity workouts like deadlifting, they’re essential for overall health. Incorporate moderate amounts of healthy fats like avocados or nuts.
Pre-workout meals: timing and composition

3. Post-workout recovery

The ‘anabolic window’, which occurs 30 to 60 minutes after your workout [4], is a crucial period. Your muscles are primed to absorb nutrients, making it a pivotal time to refuel.

  • Proteins: Intake becomes even more vital post-workout. It aids in repairing muscle fibers torn during the lift. Whey protein, rich in essential amino acids, is a popular choice, but plant-based proteins can be equally effective.
  • Carbohydrates: After depleting glycogen stores during your session, replenishing with carbs is key. This not only aids recovery but also prepares you for subsequent workouts. Opt for fast-digesting carbs like white rice or potatoes.

4. Hydration: Not just water

While water is crucial to keep muscles functioning optimally and aid recovery, there’s more to hydration.

Electrolytes, lost through sweat during intense sessions, need replenishing. Consider drinks with added electrolytes post-workout or incorporate foods rich in potassium and sodium into your diet.

5. Supplements

Supplements can act as an adjunct to a balanced diet, especially in the realm of deadlifting.

  • Creatine: It aids energy production during short, intense activities like lifting. Supplementation can increase muscle creatine stores, potentially boosting performance [5].
  • Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs): These amino acids can promote muscle protein synthesis and reduce muscle breakdown.
  • Fish oils: Rich in omega-3 fatty acids, they help manage inflammation, which can be beneficial after heavy lifting sessions.

Deadlifting tips for beginners

Starting your deadlift journey can be an exciting and demanding experience. For a smooth start, here are the essential tips and insights:

The deadlift appeal

As a beginner, understanding the appeal and advantages of deadlifting can serve as a source of motivation.

  • Full-body engagement: Deadlifts work multiple muscle groups, from calves and thighs to core and back.
  • Functional fitness: The exercise mimics everyday movements like lifting heavy objects.
  • Posture and core strength: Proper deadlifting can improve posture and boost core strength.

Essential gears

  • Barbell: Start with a standard 20kg (45 lbs) Olympic barbell.
  • Plates: Prioritize technique over weight. Begin light.
  • Footwear: Use flat-soled shoes or lift barefoot for stability. Avoid cushioned shoes.
  • Lifting belt (optional): Consider this for added support as you progress.

Master the basics

  • Foot position: Feet should be hip-width apart with the bar aligning over the mid-foot.
  • Grip: While bending at the hips and knees, grip the bar just outside your knees.
  • Neutral spine: Maintain a straight line from head to tailbone.
  • The lift: Drive using your heels, lifting your chest, and extending hips and knees simultaneously.
  • Descending: Push hips back and maintain a neutral spine, lowering the weight with control.

Key tips

  1. Always perfect your form first, then add weight.
  2. Warm consistently. Use dynamic stretches and lighter deadlift sets.
  3. Avoid overdoing it. Ensure you have recovery periods between sessions.
  4. Film your lifts for form review or get a trainer’s advice.
  5. Be aware of your body. Mild discomfort might be okay, but pain indicates something’s wrong.
  6. Once basics are nailed, gradually increase weights, ensuring form remains impeccable.
  7. Experiment with variations. As you advance, try variations like the Romanian or Sumo deadlifts for new challenges.
  8. Use safety bars or have a spotter for heavier lifts.
  9. Stay hydrated and ensure proper nutrition for performance and recovery.

Common deadlifting mistakes and how to avoid them

The deadlift, often dubbed the ‘king of lifts’, is a testament to raw power and strength. However, its intricate technique can pave the way for common errors, especially for those new to the exercise. 

Identifying these mistakes and knowing how to correct them is paramount for safety and efficacy. Here are some of the most common pitfalls and how to steer clear of them.

1. Rounding the back

  • The mistake: Many lifters tend to round their backs when lifting heavy weights, which can put excessive strain on the spine.
  • The solution: Always engage your core and maintain a neutral spine throughout the movement. Visualize pinching a pencil between your shoulder blades to keep them engaged.

2. Starting with hips too high

  • The mistake: Beginning the lift with hips in a raised position turns the deadlift into more of a stiff-legged variant, overemphasizing the hamstrings and placing undue strain on the lower back.
  • The solution: Your starting position should resemble a half-squat. Ensure your hips are positioned between your knees and shoulders.

3. Overextending at the top

  • The mistake: Some lifters tend to lean back at the top of the movement, which can stress the lumbar spine.
  • The solution: Finish the movement by standing tall with shoulders back, chest up, and the hips slightly pushed forward. There’s no need to lean back.

4. Lifting with the arms

  • The mistake: Attempting to pull the weight up using arm strength, which can strain the biceps.
  • The solution: Think of your arms as chains holding the weight. The power should come from your legs and hips, with the arms remaining straight throughout.

5. Incorrect foot positioning

  • The mistake: Setting the feet too wide or too narrow can affect the lift’s biomechanics.
  • The solution: Typically, feet should be hip-width apart for conventional deadlifts. Ensure the bar is over the mid-foot, and when you look down, the bar should obscure your shoelaces.

6. Not engaging the lats

  • The mistake: Failing to engage the lats can result in the bar moving away from the body, making the lift harder and potentially causing injury.
  • The solution: Before lifting, think of squeezing oranges in your armpits. This cue can help engage the lats, ensuring the bar stays close to the body.

7. Relying solely on back strength

  • The mistake: Not using the powerful muscles of the legs and hips to drive the movement.
  • The solution: Ensure you’re pushing through the floor with your feet and driving the hips forward. The lift is as much a push (with the legs) as it is a pull (with the back).

8. Neglecting the descent

  • The mistake: Dropping the weight quickly or rounding the back during the descent.
  • The solution: Lower the barbell by pushing the hips back first, then bending the knees once the bar passes them. Maintain the neutral spine just as you would during the lift.

Closing thoughts

The deadlift is a challenging exercise that requires proper technique, determination, and mindfulness to build full-body strength. Successful deadlifts depend on proper form, not just lifting weight. 

Better techniques and avoiding mistakes can help weightlifters gain strength and satisfaction from mastering this revered exercise. Patience, practice, and mindfulness are key to success in deadlifting, just like any other craft.


What is deadlifting good for?

Deadlifting is a powerful compound exercise that targets multiple major muscle groups, enhancing overall strength and muscle mass. Additionally, it promotes functional fitness, aiding in everyday activities and improving posture and core stability.

Is deadlift for legs or back?

The deadlift primarily targets both the legs and the back. While the legs (specifically the hamstrings and glutes) drive the initial push off the ground, the muscles of the back, including the erector spinae, provide stability and pull during the movement.

What muscles do deadlifts?

Deadlifts are a compound exercise that engages multiple muscle groups, primarily targeting the hamstrings, glutes, and erector spinae in the back. Secondary muscles worked include the core, traps, lats, forearms, and even the quads, making it a comprehensive full-body lift.

Is deadlifting everyday OK?

Deadlifting every day is generally not recommended as it can lead to overtraining, increasing the risk of injuries and hindering muscle recovery and growth. It’s essential to allow adequate rest for muscle recovery and to prevent strain on the central nervous system.

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