Fermented foods vs. probiotic supplements: Which is better for your gut?

Are you curious about the best way to support your gut health? The debate between fermented foods and probiotic supplements is a hot topic among health enthusiasts. 

Understanding the differences and benefits of each can help you make an informed decision that aligns with your health goals and lifestyle. 

This article will guide you through the essential information and considerations about fermented foods versus probiotic supplements. 

With expert advice and research findings, you’ll gain insights into how these options can enhance your digestive health and overall well-being. 

Let’s explore the key factors when choosing between these two popular methods for supporting your gut health.

What’s the difference between fermented foods and probiotics?

When considering the best ways to support your gut health, you might be weighing the benefits of fermented foods against those of probiotic supplements. 

Both offer valuable contributions to gut health, but understanding their differences, efficacy, cost, convenience, and variety is crucial for making an informed choice.


While many fermented foods are rich in probiotics, beneficial bacteria essential for a healthy digestive system, it’s important to note that not all fermented products retain these probiotics [1]. 

Processes like baking, canning, or the production of beer and wine can remove or inactivate these beneficial bacteria, making them less effective for gut health. Nonetheless, most fermented foods serve as valuable sources of probiotics.

Consuming foods like yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, and kimchi introduces a diverse range of bacteria into your gut, promoting balance and resilience against harmful bacteria. 

On the other hand, probiotic supplements are designed to deliver specific strains of bacteria in concentrated doses. These can be particularly beneficial for addressing certain health conditions, providing a targeted approach to gut health.


The cost of maintaining a diet rich in fermented foods versus taking probiotic supplements varies. 

Fermented foods, which can often be made at home, provide a cost-effective way to consume probiotics. 

Supplements, however, might represent a higher initial investment but offer a precise probiotic intake, which some may find preferable for specific health needs.


Convenience is another factor to consider. Fermented foods require refrigeration and a shorter shelf life, which might challenge busy lifestyles. 

Probiotic supplements, available in capsules or powders, are easier to store and more convenient for those always on the go.


Variety in your diet is more enjoyable and beneficial for your gut health, providing a wide range of bacterial strains. 

Fermented foods have various tastes and textures, offering something for every palate. 

Supplements, while less diverse in sensory experience, can offer a variety of bacterial strains selected for specific health outcomes.

Rather than choosing one over the other, consider the synergy between fermented foods and probiotic supplements. Incorporating both into your diet can maximize gut health benefits. 

Fermented foods offer a broad spectrum of bacteria and nutritional benefits [2], while supplements can fill in the gaps, ensuring you receive specific strains that might be missing from your diet.

Research and expert opinions consistently highlight the effectiveness of fermented foods and probiotic supplements in supporting gut health

Ultimately, your choice should align with your lifestyle, dietary preferences, and health needs. 

Is it better to take probiotics or eat fermented foods?
Photograph: Its al dente/Envato

Is it better to take probiotics or eat fermented foods?

Your lifestyle, health goals, and dietary restrictions significantly influence this decision. Let’s explore how each option supports gut health and consider what might be the best fit for you.

Benefits of probiotic supplements

Probiotic supplements offer a targeted approach to gut health. They are specifically formulated to contain high concentrations of beneficial bacteria [3], making it easier to manage your intake of specific probiotic strains. 

This can be particularly useful for addressing certain digestive issues or health conditions

Supplements also provide a convenient option for those with a fast-paced lifestyle or limited access to various fermented foods. They’re easy to take, portable, and don’t require refrigeration.

Limitations of probiotic supplements

However, supplements come with limitations. They can be more expensive over time and may not provide the broad range of bacteria and nutritional benefits that fermented foods do. 

The effectiveness of supplements can also vary based on the quality and viability of the probiotic strains they contain, making it crucial to choose reputable brands.

Benefits of fermented foods

On the other hand, fermented foods are a natural source of probiotics and often contain a diverse spectrum of beneficial bacteria. This diversity benefits gut health, as different bacteria offer different health benefits. 

Fermented foods also contribute additional nutrients and enzymes that support digestion and overall health. 

They can be a more enjoyable way to consume probiotics, adding unique flavors and textures to your diet.

Limitations of fermented foods

The limitations of fermented foods include their variable probiotic content, which can depend on the fermentation process and the ingredients used. 

Some people may also have dietary restrictions or preferences that limit their consumption of certain fermented foods. 

Additionally, those with sensitivities to histamines or certain types of fermentable carbohydrates may need to be cautious.

Considerations for your choice

Your choice between probiotic supplements and fermented foods should consider your health goals. 

Supplements might offer a more targeted solution if you’re looking for specific health benefits. However, fermented foods are excellent for overall gut health and nutritional diversity.

Lifestyle and dietary restrictions are also crucial factors. Those with busy schedules may lean towards the convenience of supplements, while individuals who enjoy cooking and exploring different cuisines might prefer fermented foods’ variety and culinary experience.

Can fermented foods replace probiotics?

Whether fermented foods can replace probiotic supplements is nuanced, with the answer depending mainly on individual health goals and conditions. 

Fermented foods are a rich, natural source of probiotics, offering a diverse array of beneficial bacteria that contribute to a healthy gut microbiome

For many, incorporating fermented foods may provide sufficient probiotics to maintain gut health and support digestive function.

However, the concentration and variety of probiotics in fermented foods can vary widely based on fermentation and the ingredients used. 

While fermented foods benefit gut health, they may not always provide specific strains to address particular health issues.

In such cases, probiotic supplements can offer a more targeted approach, delivering high doses of specific strains clinically shown to have health benefits.

Certain health conditions or scenarios might necessitate the use of probiotic supplements. 

For instance, individuals with specific digestive disorders, those who have undergone antibiotic treatment, or those with compromised immune systems may require the targeted support supplements provide.

While fermented foods can form the foundation of a probiotic-rich diet, supplements may be necessary for those seeking specific health outcomes or dealing with particular health challenges [4]. 

A healthcare provider can offer guidance tailored to individual needs, ensuring a balanced approach to supporting gut health.

Which fermented food has the most probiotics?

Not all fermented delights are created equal in terms of their probiotic content. Some of the diverse options available stand out for their particularly rich probiotic profiles.

Yogurt, especially those labeled with “live and active cultures,” is a well-known probiotic powerhouse. It’s versatile in its culinary uses and packed with beneficial bacteria that support gut health.  

Look for varieties made from the milk of grass-fed animals or those enriched with additional probiotic strains for an extra boost.

Kefir, a fermented milk drink, often surpasses yogurt’s probiotic diversity, containing several major strains of friendly bacteria and yeast [5]. Its liquid form makes it a convenient probiotic source, easily incorporated into daily diets.

Sauerkraut, made from fermented cabbage, is not only rich in probiotics but also vitamins C and B [6]. 

The key is to choose unpasteurized, refrigerated varieties, as the pasteurization process kills beneficial bacteria.

Kimchi, a Korean staple made from fermented vegetables, combines a rich probiotic content with antioxidants and vitamins. 

Its unique blend of spices and fermentation process yields a high concentration of lactobacilli, a beneficial bacterium.

These fermented foods offer a delicious and natural way to boost your probiotic intake. Incorporating a variety of them into your diet can enhance gut health, offering a flavorful alternative to probiotic supplements.

Can you take probiotics and eat fermented foods?

Can you take probiotics and eat fermented foods?

Combining probiotic supplements with fermented foods is safe and can benefit your gut health [7]. 

This approach harnesses the strengths of both dietary sources, offering a broader spectrum of probiotics and enhancing the overall balance of your gut microbiome.

Probiotic supplements are formulated to provide specific strains of bacteria in precise doses, making them an excellent option for targeted gut health support. 

These supplements can fill in the gaps your diet might miss, ensuring you receive diverse probiotics necessary for optimal gut function.

On the other hand, fermented foods bring more than just probiotics to the table; they’re packed with vitamins, minerals, and fiber, contributing to a well-rounded, nutritious diet. 

The variety of bacteria found in foods like yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, and kimchi adds to the complexity of your gut flora, promoting a robust digestive system.

Merging the two into your daily routine amplifies their benefits. You get targeted support from supplements and fermented foods’ nutritional richness and probiotic diversity. 

Remember, balance is key. Listening to your body and adjusting intake based on your unique health needs and responses is crucial.

Always consult with a healthcare provider before making significant changes to your diet, especially if you have underlying health conditions. 

They can offer guidance tailored to your health profile, ensuring your probiotic strategy is safe and effective.

In closing

Deciding between fermented foods and probiotic supplements for gut health is a personal choice influenced by lifestyle, dietary preferences, and specific health needs. 

Both options offer unique benefits: fermented foods provide various probiotics and additional nutritional benefits, while supplements offer targeted strains for specific health outcomes. Incorporating a mix of both could be the most effective strategy for enhancing gut health.  

Consider consulting with a healthcare professional to tailor this approach to your health profile. 

Remember, a balanced gut is critical to overall health and well-being, and your chosen route should best align with your life and goals.


Is it better to get probiotics from food or pills?

Getting probiotics from food provides a diverse array of beneficial bacteria and offers additional nutritional benefits. However, pills can offer specific strains in concentrated doses for targeted health concerns, making both sources valuable depending on individual health needs.

What do probiotics do in fermented foods?

In fermented foods, probiotics aid in the digestion process, enhance the absorption of nutrients and contribute to the maintenance of a healthy gut microbiome. They also play a crucial role in strengthening the immune system and preventing the growth of harmful bacteria.

Are fermented foods better than probiotic supplements?

Fermented foods offer a wide range of probiotics and essential nutrients, making them a holistic choice for gut health. However, probiotic supplements can provide specific strains in precise doses, making each beneficial based on individual health goals and needs.

How often should you eat fermented foods?

Incorporating fermented foods into your diet several times a week can support a healthy gut microbiome and enhance overall digestion. Moderation and variety are key, ensuring a broad spectrum of probiotics and nutrients.

Photograph: Timolina/Envato

[1] https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/how-to-get-more-probiotics
[2] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28945458/
[3] https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Probiotics-HealthProfessional/
[4] https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/probiotics-what-you-need-to-know
[5] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241728299_Kefir_-_A_complex_probiotic
[6] https://minimalistbaker.com/how-to-make-sauerkraut/
[7] https://seed.com/cultured/fermented-foods-vs-probiotics/

The information included in this article is for informational purposes only. The purpose of this webpage is to promote broad consumer understanding and knowledge of various health topics. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or treatment and before undertaking a new health care regimen, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.