How the Power of Nicotinamide Riboside Fights Age-Related Diseases

As we age, age-related diseases present major risks to our health and quality of life. 

Nicotinamide Riboside (NR), a promising compound, has surfaced in the race to treat these diseases and unravel the mysteries of aging. 

By increasing levels of NAD+, a coenzyme necessary for cellular energy generation and DNA repair, the vitamin B3 form NR promotes cellular health. 

NR has the potential to improve cellular function, guard against age-related damage, and perhaps even lengthen lifespan by restoring NAD+ levels. 

The science underpinning NR is examined in this article, along with its advantages and potential applications in the battle against age-related disorders. 

As we investigate, our goal is to uncover the riddles underlying NR and its potential to transform the study of aging.

What is the role of cellular health to aging?

The overall health and function of the billions of cells that make up our bodies define how old we are. 

Maintaining the integrity of tissues and organs, producing energy effectively, repairing DNA and the proper operation of the body’s systems all depend on proper cellular activity.

The role of mitochondria in cellular aging and health is crucial. The energy centers of our cells, mitochondria, are in charge of producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through oxidative phosphorylation. 

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However, mitochondrial activity tends to deteriorate with age. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced more often as a result of this drop, which also affects cellular function. 

The aging process in general as well as a number of age-related disorders have been linked to mitochondrial malfunction [1].

Cellular senescence is a crucial component of cellular health. Cells that have reached cellular senescence no longer have the capacity to divide and carry out their normal functions. 

Over time, these senescent cells build up in tissues and release toxic chemicals that cause tissue damage and inflammation. 

Numerous age-related illnesses, including cancer, neurological diseases and cardiovascular disease, are linked to cellular senescence.

What is nicotinamide riboside?

What is nicotinamide riboside?

Vitamin B3 comes in the form of nicotinamide riboside (NR), usually referred to as niacin or nicotinic acid. It is a naturally occurring substance that is present in traces in several foods. 

The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which is essential for most cellular activities, is a precursor of NR.

The distinctive chemical composition of NR sets it apart from other vitamin B3 forms. It is made up of a ribose sugar molecule and a pyridine ring. 

This structural arrangement makes it possible for cells to efficiently convert NR into NAD+ and absorb it with ease.

While NR is found in small amounts in various foods, including milk, yeast and some vegetables, it might be difficult to reach adequate levels from diet alone [2]. 

As a result, taking NR supplements has become a common way to increase NAD+ levels and maintain cellular health.

What are the potential benefits of nicotinamide riboside?

By increasing NAD+ levels within cells, nicotinamide riboside (NR) supplementation may have a number of advantages. 

Supplementing with NR, which is easily converted into NAD+, helps restore NAD+ levels that naturally fall with aging by supplying an external source of NR. 

This increase in NAD+ availability has a number of beneficial consequences on cellular operation and general health.

Here are the benefits of nicotinamide riboside that you should know about:

1. Enhances cellular function and energy production

By promoting ideal mitochondrial activity, NR supplementation can improve cellular performance. 

The energy factories of cells, the mitochondria, rely on NAD+ for effective oxidative phosphorylation-based energy generation. 

NAD+ availability is increased by NR, which enhances mitochondrial activity and boosts energy generation and metabolic effectiveness.

2. DNA repair and maintenance

Sirtuins, which are crucial for preserving genomic integrity, are DNA repair enzymes that require NAD+ to function. 

NAD+ levels rise with NR supplementation, aiding DNA repair procedures and preventing DNA damage-related aging [3]. 

NR may lessen the buildup of DNA damage and lower the risk of age-related illnesses by promoting effective DNA repair.

3. Other health benefits

Supplementing with NR has the potential to offer a number of health advantages. 

Studies point to possible benefits of neuroprotection, such as enhanced cognitive performance and defense against neurodegenerative disorders. 

By improving endothelial function, lowering oxidative stress, and supporting vascular integrity, NR may also enhance cardiovascular health. 

Additionally, the modulation of metabolism by NR has the potential to treat metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes and obesity.

The amount of NAD+ in our cells gradually decreases as we become older. Throughout the body, this decrease has been seen in a number of tissues and organs. 

NAD+ availability has decreased as a result of both decreased production and increased NAD+ use by multiple cellular activities. 

Numerous age-related diseases’ onset and progression have been linked to the decline in NAD+ levels. 

NAD+ deficiency may lead to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial malfunction and cellular dysfunction, all of which are important factors in the development of age-related diseases.

NAD+ decline or dysregulation has been linked to a number of age-related diseases, such as neurological diseases (like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases), cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders (including obesity, type 2 diabetes) and several malignancies [4].

Age-related diseases may be prevented or treated by restoring NAD+ levels through treatments such as nicotinamide riboside (NR) supplementation. 

A potential strategy for battling age-related disorders, NR may help counteract the cellular dysfunctions brought on by NAD+ decrease by increasing NAD+ availability.

Restoring NAD+ levels through treatments like NR supplementation may have significant effects on aging healthily and lowering the chance of developing age-related diseases.

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As a prospective treatment for serious age-related illnesses including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, cardiovascular problems, and type 2 diabetes, nicotinamide riboside (NR) shows promise. 

NR supplementation may have advantages in reducing disease pathology, promoting neuroprotection, boosting cardiovascular health and controlling metabolic diseases since it targets NAD+ loss and improves cellular function. 

Let’s examine how NR affects and contributes to different age-related diseases:

Alzheimer’s disease

Cognitive decline, memory loss, and neuronal damage are characteristics of the neurodegenerative condition Alzheimer’s disease

According to research, amyloid-beta plaque buildup and tau protein malfunction, two hallmarks of the illness, are linked to a reduction in NAD+ levels in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s.

Supplementing with nicotinamide riboside (NR) has the potential to reduce Alzheimer’s pathogenesis. 

NR maintains cellular activity, improves mitochondrial health, and encourages DNA repair by elevating NAD+ levels [5]. 

These benefits may enhance cognitive performance, guard against neurodegeneration, and maybe decrease the course of Alzheimer’s disease.

The potential benefits of NR in Alzheimer’s are being investigated through ongoing research and clinical studies. 

These investigations seek to clarify the processes by which NR affects the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, evaluate its efficiency in enhancing cognitive function and neuronal health and examine its safety and long-term consequences.

Alzheimer's disease
Photograph: YuriArcursPeopleimages/Envato

Parkinson’s disease

The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain is a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease, a progressive neurodegenerative condition. 

Parkinson’s disease pathology, including mitochondrial malfunction and oxidative stress, which cause neuronal death and motor deficits, has been linked to NAD+ shortage.

Supplementing with nicotinamide riboside (NR) may help control Parkinson’s disease. 

NR boosts mitochondrial activity, lowers oxidative stress and improves cellular energy generation by raising NAD+ levels. 

These actions might have neuroprotective properties, delay the onset of the disease, and possibly lessen Parkinson’s disease-related motor symptoms.

Preclinical research has produced encouraging outcomes, showing NR’s capacity to safeguard dopaminergic neurons, enhance motor function and lessen neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s model organisms.

Cardiovascular diseases

Major age-related health problems include cardiovascular disorders including heart disease and stroke. 

NAD+ deficiency has been connected to endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular aging, all of which accelerate the onset and progression of cardiovascular illnesses.

Supplementing with nicotinamide riboside (NR) has the potential to enhance cardiovascular health. 

By boosting endothelial function, preserving arterial integrity, and improving overall cardiovascular function, NR helps to lower oxidative stress. 

Preclinical research has demonstrated that NR has beneficial effects on reducing cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension and atherosclerosis and enhancing heart function.

Type 2 diabetes

In type 2 diabetes, poor glucose metabolism and insulin resistance are common. Insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction and persistent low-grade inflammation in diabetes are all caused by NAD+ malfunction.

Supplementing with nicotinamide riboside (NR) has the potential to help type 2 diabetics with their metabolic health and glycemic management. 

NR promotes cellular performance, enhances mitochondrial health, and lowers inflammation by raising NAD+ levels. 

These outcomes might lead to increased insulin sensitivity, better glucose tolerance, and fewer complications from diabetes.


In the battle against age-related diseases, nicotinamide riboside (NR) has potential. 

NR maintains cellular function, improves energy generation, encourages DNA repair, and lessens age-related cellular decline by raising cellular levels of NAD+. 

The significance of maintaining adequate NAD+ levels for healthy aging is highlighted by the connection between NAD+ decrease and age-related illnesses. 

Key age-related disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, cardiovascular problems, and type 2 diabetes may be treated well with NR supplementation. 

The full potential of NR in preventing age-related disorders and enhancing general wellbeing is still being revealed through ongoing research and clinical studies.


What is nicotinamide riboside used for?

To increase cellular levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), nicotinamide riboside (NR) is used. NAD+ is an essential coenzyme involved in a number of cellular functions, such as energy metabolism, DNA repair, and the control of gene expression.

What happens to NAD as we age?

As people age, NAD+ levels naturally decrease. DNA repair, energy metabolism, and cellular function are all impacted by this drop in NAD+. It increases vulnerability to age-related disorders as well as oxidative stress and cellular dysfunction brought on by aging.

What is the vitamin called nicotinamide riboside?

Nicotinamide Riboside (NR) is a form of vitamin B3, also known as niacin or nicotinic acid. It is a naturally occurring compound found in trace amounts in certain foods

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