Is it a sprain or a strain? How to tell the difference

Have you ever twisted your ankle during a quick turn on the basketball court or felt a sharp pull in your back after lifting heavy boxes? Understanding whether you have a sprain or a strain can significantly influence how you treat your injury and speed up your recovery.

Although sprain or strain are often used interchangeably, they describe two distinct types of injuries, each affecting different tissues in your body.

Recognizing these differences is crucial for proper self-care and deciding when to consult a healthcare professional.

Over the next sections, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatments for both sprains and strains, offering clear and straightforward advice on handling each scenario effectively.

This will ensure you’re equipped with the knowledge to manage your injury correctly, helping you return to your daily activities as safely and swiftly as possible.

What are sprains and strains?

Sprains and strains are common injuries that affect the soft tissues of the body, but they involve different structures.

A sprain occurs when ligaments—the tough bands that connect bones together at a joint—are overstretched or torn. Conversely, a strain happens when muscles or the tendons that attach muscles to bones are overstretched or torn. 

Understanding the difference between a sprain and a strain is crucial for effective injury management. Here’s a simple breakdown to help clarify these two types of injuries:


These injuries affect your ligaments, the elastic-like bands that connect bones within your joints [1].

Typically, a sprain occurs when there’s a sudden twist or impact that forces the joint out of its normal position, leading to overstretched or torn ligaments. Ankles, wrists, and knees are often susceptible.


Strains impact the muscles or the tendons, which anchor muscles to bones. This type of injury usually arises from overusing a muscle, stretching it too far, or forcefully contracting it. Common sites for strains are the back and the hamstring area.

Affected tissueLigaments (tough bands connecting bones at joints)Muscles or tendons (tendons attach muscles to bones)
Typical causesSudden twists or impacts that force a joint out of its normal position, leading to overstretched or torn ligamentsOverusing a muscle, stretching it too far, or forcefully contracting it
Common sitesAnkles, wrists, kneesBack, hamstring area
Injury typeInvolves overstretched or torn ligamentsInvolves overstretched or torn muscles or tendons
Primary impactAffects joints and their stabilityImpacts muscle function and attachment to bones
Management goalsGuide treatment to ensure joint stability and prevent complicationsFocus on muscle and tendon recovery, prevent further injury, and aid in quicker recovery

Recognizing whether an injury is a sprain or a strain can guide you toward the right treatment path, helping prevent further complications and aiding in quicker recovery.

What is the cause of a sprain and strain?

What is the cause of a sprain and strain?

Sprains and strains are common injuries that occur due to overstretching or tearing of ligaments and muscles or tendons, respectively. Understanding the causes of sprains and strains, along with who is at higher risk, can be your first step toward prevention. 

Both conditions stem from overstretching or tearing, but they target different tissues in the body and come about under various circumstances. 

Sprains typically result from a twist, pull, or impact that forces a joint out of its normal position, stressing the ligaments that connect bones.

Strains, on the other hand, are usually caused by overusing a muscle, stretching it too far, or subjecting it to a sudden, forceful impact. These injuries are frequent in both athletic activities and everyday movements.

Let’s look closer at the causes and risks associated with each.

Causes of sprains

Sprains are injuries to ligaments, the tough bands that connect bones at a joint. Typically, a sprain occurs when a sudden force overstretches or tears these ligaments. 

Common scenarios for these injuries include:

  • This is often seen in sports when the foot plants one way, but the knee turns the other. This awkward motion can overstretch the ligaments around the joint, particularly common in the ankle or knee.
  • Landing in an awkward position can push a joint beyond its normal range, stressing the ligaments. Whether it’s slipping on ice or tripping over an obstacle, the quick and often unexpected movement can lead to a sprain.
  • Direct hits to the body during sports or accidents can force a joint into an unnatural position. Whether it’s a collision on the football field or a stumble during a hike, the impact can jolt a joint and stretch the ligaments too far.

Causes of strains

Strains are injuries to muscles or the tendons that connect them to bones. Unlike sprains, which involve ligaments and joints, strains affect the soft tissues that facilitate movement. 

Common causes include:

  • Repeated motion over long periods can fatigue muscle groups leading to strains. This is frequently seen in athletes who perform the same movements, like pitchers in baseball or rowers, where the repetition slowly degrades muscle fibers.
  • Pushing muscles beyond their flexibility limits can cause immediate tears. Activities such as yoga or gymnastics, where extensive stretching is common, can increase the risk of such injuries if not properly moderated.
  • Intense, abrupt muscle contractions can strain muscles and tendons. This often occurs in sports requiring explosive movements, such as sprinting or lifting heavy weights [2].

How do the symptoms of sprains and strains differ?

Identifying whether you’re dealing with a sprain or a strain is crucial for choosing the right treatment path. While both injuries involve discomfort and impaired function, their symptoms can manifest differently

A sprain typically manifests with pain, swelling, and bruising around a joint, accompanied by a feeling of instability. In contrast, a strain involves muscle or tendon discomfort and is characterized by pain that intensifies with muscle use, muscle spasms, and possible swelling.

Recognizing these differences is key to managing each condition effectively. Here’s a breakdown of how you can distinguish between the two based on their symptoms:

Symptoms of sprains

When you experience a sprain, you’re dealing with stretched or torn ligaments, the fibrous tissues connecting bones across joints. Recognizing the symptoms of a sprain can help you take quick and appropriate action.

Here are the typical symptoms of sprains:

  • The discomfort is usually immediate and worsens when you try to use the affected joint. It can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent of the injury.
  • This is a natural response as your body rushes fluids to the damaged area to start the healing process. Swelling can vary in size but is usually noticeable.
  • Appearing within a day or two of the injury, bruises are a clear indicator that some blood vessels were harmed. The color might start out dark and gradually lighten as the bruise heals.
  • If moving the joint feels restricted or if it seems to ‘lock’ in place, this is a common symptom of a sprain. In severe cases, you may not be able to use the joint at all.
  • The joint may feel loose or like it might give out when you put pressure on it, particularly for severe sprains.

Symptoms of strains

When it comes to strains, you’re dealing with injuries to muscles or the tendons that connect them to bones. Knowing how to spot the signs of a strain can help you manage the injury effectively from the outset. 

Here are the common symptoms of strains:

  • Unlike the sharp pain associated with sprains, the discomfort from a strain is more of an ache that worsens when the affected muscle is stretched or actively used.
  • While typically less pronounced than in sprains, swelling is a sign of inflammation and can still be noticeable around the injured muscle or tendon.
  • One of the more distinctive signs of a strain is the occurrence of involuntary muscle contractions, which can be painful and clearly indicate that something isn’t right.
  • The affected muscle may feel weaker than usual, and you might find it challenging to use it as you normally would.
  • You may notice a reduced range of motion in the affected area, especially when trying to stretch or move the muscle.
Symptom categorySprain symptomsStrain symptoms
PainImmediate pain that worsens with joint use; can range from mild to severeAching pain that worsens with muscle stretch or use; typically less sharp than sprain pain
SwellingNoticeable swelling around the joint, varying in sizeTypically less pronounced than sprains; still noticeable around the injured muscle or tendon
BruisingBruises appearing within a day or two, starting dark and gradually lighteningNot specifically mentioned as a symptom of strains in the source text
Muscle spasmsNot typically associated with sprainsInvoluntary muscle contractions, painful and indicative of strain
Joint/muscle functionMovement restriction, joint locking, or inability to use the joint; feeling of instability or joint giving outWeaker muscle strength, reduced range of motion, and challenges in using the muscle normally
General discomfortDescribed as discomfort worsened by joint useDiscomfort intensifies with muscle use, differentiating it from sprain pain

What is the treatment for strains and sprains?

The treatment for sprains and strains focuses on relieving pain, reducing swelling, and promoting healing, while also preventing further injury. Effective treatment for sprains and strains starts with proper diagnosis and understanding the severity of your injury [3]. 

While both conditions involve soft tissues and require careful management, their treatment can differ significantly based on the tissues involved. 

Both conditions benefit from the RICE method—Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation—especially within the first 48 hours after the injury occurs. As symptoms improve, physical therapy and strengthening exercises are crucial for full recovery and to prevent future injuries. 

Now, let’s discuss further how we can approach treatment for both sprains and strains:

What is the treatment for strains and sprains?

Treatment for sprains

Treating a sprain effectively involves a combination of immediate care and ongoing support to ensure a full recovery. Here’s how you can manage a sprain from the moment it happens:

  1. Give the injured area a break. Avoid putting weight or pressure on the joint, which could worsen the injury.
  2. Every two to three hours, apply an ice pack to the afflicted area for 20 minutes. Make sure to wrap the ice in a cloth to protect your skin from frostbite.
  3. Wrap the affected area tightly with an elastic compression bandage, being careful not to sever circulation. This helps reduce swelling and provides support.
  4. Keep the injured joint elevated above heart level as much as possible. This helps reduce swelling by aiding fluid drainage from the injured area.
  5. Consider over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen to help manage pain and control inflammation.
  6. Once the initial pain and swelling have decreased, gentle, progressive physical therapy can help restore flexibility and strength. This step is crucial for preventing future injuries and ensuring a full recovery.

Treatment for strains

Effectively managing a strain requires careful attention to both immediate treatment and gradual rehabilitation. Here are the steps to take if you suspect a muscle or tendon strain:

  1. Avoid activities that cause pain or might have led to the injury. Continuing to stress the strained muscle can lead to further damage [4].
  2. Apply an ice pack to the injured area for 20 minutes every few hours during the first 48 hours. This helps reduce swelling and numbs some of the pain. Always wrap the ice in a towel to protect your skin.
  3. Use an elastic bandage to wrap the area gently. This supports the muscles and can help decrease swelling.
  4. When possible, keep the strained muscle elevated above your heart to help reduce swelling.
  5. Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, can help alleviate pain and manage inflammation.
  6. After the initial 48 hours, if the swelling has decreased, apply heat to the area to help relax and loosen tissues and stimulate blood flow.
  7. As you recover, gentle stretching and strengthening exercises under a healthcare provider’s or physical therapist’s guidance are vital. They will aid in restoring strength and flexibility to the muscle, helping to prevent future injuries.

In closing

Understanding the differences between sprains and strains, their causes, symptoms, and the most effective treatment methods is crucial in navigating these common injuries.

Whether you’ve twisted your ankle on a run or pulled a muscle lifting weights, recognizing what you’re dealing with can significantly influence your recovery path.

The initial response to both injuries involves rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). However, the journey to full recovery doesn’t stop there.

It’s essential to gradually reintroduce movement through physical therapy and tailored exercises, ensuring the affected area regains its strength and flexibility, minimizing the risk of future injuries.


How do you tell the difference between a sprain and a strain?

A sprain involves ligaments and typically occurs at joints, resulting from overstretching or tearing. A strain affects muscles or tendons, usually due to overexertion or overstretching.

How do you know if it’s a sprain or strain?

If your injury is near a joint and includes swelling and bruising, it’s likely a sprain. If it involves muscle weakness and pain during movement, it’s probably a strain.

Does a strain heal faster than a sprain?

The healing time for a strain can be shorter than for a sprain, depending on the severity of the injury. Strains typically heal faster because muscle tissue has a better blood supply than the ligaments involved in sprains, which aids in faster recovery.

When should I see a doctor for a sprain or strain?

You should consult a healthcare provider if there is severe pain if you can’t bear weight on the area, or if there’s no improvement within a few days of self-care.


Photograph: voronaman111/Envato
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