Muscle health: Importance, supplements, nutrition, types, exercises, disorders

Have you ever considered how vital your muscles are beyond just lifting weights at the gym? A surprising statistic reveals that skeletal muscle constitutes about 40% of our body weight, underscoring its critical role not just in movement but in overall health. 

Muscle health influences everything from our metabolism and energy levels to our ability to perform daily activities. Yet, it’s not uncommon to overlook the comprehensive care our muscles require. 

This guide aims to illuminate the importance of muscle health, encompassing nutrition, exercise, supplements, and understanding the various types and potential disorders. 

You’ll discover actionable strategies to maintain or improve muscle health, ensuring a stronger, more vibrant life. 

We aim to provide you with the knowledge and tools to support your muscles effectively, helping you lead a more active, healthier lifestyle.

Why is muscle health important?

Muscles are the engines that power your movement and support your body, enabling everything from brisk walking to maintaining posture. But their influence extends into areas you might not immediately connect with muscle health.

Muscle mass: A key player in metabolic health

The importance of muscle mass cannot be overstated regarding your metabolic health. Healthy muscle mass is not just about strength; it’s vital to your body’s energy expenditure. 

Muscles are metabolically active tissues, meaning they burn calories even when you’re at rest. The more muscle mass you have, the higher your resting metabolic rate. 

This not only helps in managing weight but also improves your energy levels throughout the day.

Furthermore, muscle mass plays a crucial role in insulin sensitivity. Your muscles use glucose for energy, and the more muscle you have, the more effectively your body can regulate blood sugar levels. This reduces the risk of insulin resistance, a precursor to diabetes.

Muscle health: Beyond weight management

Muscles also contribute significantly to your body composition—how much of your body is fat versus lean mass. 

A healthy muscle-to-fat ratio is associated with a lower risk of obesity, offering protection against weight-related health issues. But the benefits extend even further.

Robust muscle health is instrumental in preventing chronic diseases. Strong muscles relieve pressure on joints, reducing the risk of osteoarthritis. 

They also play a role in cardiovascular health, as increased muscle mass is linked with lower cholesterol levels and blood pressure. 

The strength of your muscles can even influence your mental health, with regular exercise being a known mood enhancer and stress reliever.

So, while the visual appeal of well-defined muscles might catch the eye, the unseen benefits they provide are far more substantial. 

Maintaining muscle health is crucial for a well-functioning metabolism, effective weight management, and a reduced risk of chronic diseases, underscoring the need for a lifestyle that promotes muscle strength and endurance. 

This comprehensive approach to muscle health enhances your physical capabilities and significantly contributes to your overall well-being.

How does aging affect muscle health?

How does aging affect muscle health?

As individuals age, maintaining muscle health becomes increasingly crucial, with sarcopenia— the age-related decrease in muscle mass—posing a significant challenge. 

This condition affects activity levels and quality of life, reducing mobility and independence. Notably, muscle mass declines accelerate after age 70, emphasizing the need for proactive management strategies.

The underlying factors of sarcopenia extend beyond aging, including reduced physical activity, dietary changes, and hormonal shifts. 

These contribute to decreased muscle protein synthesis, increased insulin resistance, and higher body fat, highlighting the condition’s multifaceted nature.

Combating sarcopenia requires a comprehensive approach. Resistance and endurance training have proven effective in improving muscle strength and endurance across ages, demonstrating that muscles retain adaptability. 

A balanced diet rich in proteins and essential nutrients also supports muscle repair and growth.

Innovative treatments, like selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), are being explored to mitigate muscle loss, offering hope for future interventions [1]. 

By embracing a combination of exercise, proper nutrition, and potential medical treatments, individuals can tackle the effects of aging on muscle health, preserving their strength, mobility, and independence.

What are the 3 types of muscles?

Skeletal muscles

Skeletal muscles, attached to bones by tendons, are the most familiar type. They govern your ability to perform voluntary movements—from smiling to sprinting. 

Structurally, these muscles are long, fibrous tissues capable of contracting to initiate movement. As you age, maintaining muscle mass in these areas becomes crucial. 

A decline can lead to decreased strength and mobility, underscoring the importance of regular, targeted exercise to keep these muscles robust and responsive.

Smooth muscles

Less visible but equally vital are your smooth muscles. Found within the walls of organs and blood vessels, they manage functions out of your conscious control, such as digesting food and regulating blood pressure. 

Aging can affect these muscles’ efficiency, leading to common issues like digestive problems and hypertension. A balanced diet rich in nutrients supports their health, aiding in maintaining their function as they age.

Cardiac muscle

Unique among muscle types, the cardiac muscle exclusively comprises the heart. Its structure allows it to beat continuously and rhythmically, pumping blood throughout your body. 

Like other muscles, aging can impact it, with decreased efficiency potentially leading to heart-related conditions. 

Cardiovascular exercises and a heart-healthy diet are key strategies for supporting this critical muscle type and ensuring its continued strength and functionality throughout life.

What measures muscle health?

Measuring muscle health involves assessing various aspects of muscle function and composition to comprehensively understand an individual’s muscular strength, endurance, and mass. Common techniques include:

Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)

Widely regarded for its precision, DXA scans quantify muscle mass, differentiating it from bone and fat tissue, and providing a clear picture of body composition [2].

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)

This non-invasive method estimates body composition, including muscle mass, by analyzing the resistance of body tissues to electrical currents.

Muscle strength tests

Simple, direct assessments like grip strength or the one-repetition maximum test in weightlifting offer insight into muscle strength capabilities.

Functional performance tests

Functional fitness exercises like the sit-to-stand or timed up-and-go tests evaluate muscle endurance and mobility, crucial indicators of muscle health, especially in older adults.

What is the diet for muscle health?

Adequate nutrition is the cornerstone of muscle health, providing the essential building blocks for strength, recovery, and endurance. 

Understanding how to fuel your body can make a significant difference in maintaining muscle mass and functionality, especially as you age.



The building block of muscle tissue, protein, is crucial for repair and growth. Consuming enough protein supports muscle mass and helps prevent atrophy, which is especially important for aging muscles that are more prone to deterioration. Sources like lean meats, dairy, legumes, and nuts should be staples in your diet.


Often misunderstood, carbs are vital for energy. They fuel your workouts and help with recovery, replenishing muscle glycogen stores that are depleted during exercise.

Focus on complex carbohydrates from whole grains, fruits, and vegetables for sustained energy.


Essential for hormone production, including those related to muscle growth and health, healthy fats from sources like avocados, olive oil, and fatty fish support overall health and provide a concentrated energy source.


Vitamins and minerals play key roles in muscle contraction, recovery, and growth. Calcium and magnesium support muscle function and prevent cramps, while antioxidants like vitamins C and E help protect muscle cells from damage. 

These nutrients benefit aging muscles significantly, making a varied diet rich in colorful fruits and vegetables, dairy, and whole grains critical.


Water is vital for all bodily functions, including muscle health. It aids in transporting nutrients to your muscles, maintaining electrolyte balance for muscle contractions, and preventing cramps. 

Proper hydration enhances performance, aids in recovery, and is particularly crucial as muscle water content can decrease with age.

Dietary recommendations for optimal muscle health

To support muscle health and counteract atrophy, especially in older adults, focus on a balanced diet that includes:

  • Adequate protein with every meal.
  • A variety of fruits and vegetables for micronutrients.
  • Whole grains and healthy fats for sustained energy.
  • Regular hydration throughout the day.

Tailor your nutrition to meet these guidelines and ensure your muscles have the necessary nutrients to thrive, supporting your physical health and enhancing your quality of life as you age. 

Adopting these nutritional practices, combined with regular physical activity, lays a strong foundation for maintaining muscle health and functionality throughout your life.

Dietary recommendations for optimal muscle health
Photograph: magone/Envato

What are the best supplements for muscle health?

Are you considering supplements to enhance your muscle health? With many options available, it’s essential to understand which supplements can support muscle mass and prevent atrophy, especially as muscles age.

1. Protein powders

Protein powders, like whey, casein, and plant-based alternatives, are a staple in muscle health. They provide the necessary building blocks for muscle repair and growth. 

They are particularly beneficial for meeting daily protein requirements, which are essential for both young athletes and aging individuals looking to preserve muscle mass.

2. Creatine

Known for improving strength and power, creatine is one of the most researched supplements. It helps regenerate ATP (your muscles’ energy currency), supporting intense training sessions and promoting muscle gain over time.

3. BCAAs (Branched-Chain Amino Acids)

Leucine, isoleucine, and valine are crucial for muscle protein synthesis and recovery. Supplementing with BCAAs can be especially useful for maintaining muscle mass in people with dietary protein limitations or in older adults experiencing muscle loss.

4. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)

A derivative of the amino acid leucine, HMB is effective in reducing muscle protein breakdown, making it beneficial for preserving muscle mass, particularly in those beginning an exercise program or facing muscle loss due to aging.

5. Glutamine

While your body typically produces enough glutamine, supplementation can be helpful during times of stress or intense training, supporting immune function and muscle recovery.

6. CoQ10 (coenzyme Q10)

This antioxidant helps produce energy in your cells and has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce oxidative stress, aiding muscle recovery and health.

7. Magnesium

Essential for muscle contraction and relaxation, magnesium plays a role in over 300 enzymatic reactions in the body, including protein synthesis. Adequate magnesium levels can support muscle health and prevent cramps, which is particularly important for older adults.

8. Omega-3 fatty acids

Found in fish oil and flaxseed, omega-3s can enhance muscle protein synthesis and increase muscle mass, which is especially beneficial for aging muscles.

While supplements can provide additional support, they should complement a well-rounded diet and exercise program, not replace it. 

When should you take supplements for muscle health?

Deciding when to integrate supplements into your muscle health regimen is as crucial as selecting the right ones. 

The timing can significantly influence their effectiveness, particularly concerning your exercise routine and daily nutritional intake.


This window is critical for muscle recovery and growth. Supplements like protein powder and BCAAs are most beneficial when taken shortly after exercise, as they help repair muscle tissue and stimulate muscle protein synthesis.


For those looking to boost their energy and performance levels during workouts, supplements such as creatine and beta-alanine can be taken pre-exercise. They enhance endurance and power, allowing for a more intense and effective workout session.

With meals

Certain supplements, like omega-3 fatty acids and CoQ10, are best taken with meals to improve absorption. Incorporating them into your meal times ensures that you’re maximizing their potential benefits for muscle health and overall well-being.

Is it necessary to take supplements for muscle health?

The question of whether supplements are necessary for muscle health often arises, especially when you’re aiming to optimize your fitness and well-being. 

The answer isn’t a straightforward yes or no but depends on individual dietary habits, lifestyle, and specific health goals.

For those who can meet their nutritional needs through a well-balanced diet rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals, supplements might not be essential. 

Your body prefers nutrients from whole foods because they offer a complex nutritional profile that supplements can’t replicate. 

Foods provide not only the macronutrients and micronutrients your muscles need but also dietary fiber and bioactive compounds beneficial for overall health.

However, certain situations can warrant the addition of supplements. Individuals with dietary restrictions, older adults experiencing muscle loss, or athletes undergoing intense training sessions may find it challenging to meet the increased nutritional demands solely through food. 

In these cases, supplements like protein powders, BCAAs, or creatine can play a supportive role in muscle repair, growth, and overall health.

Ultimately, supplements should be viewed as potential tools to enhance your muscle health, filling nutritional gaps rather than replacing whole foods. 

Evaluate your diet and fitness goals with a healthcare professional to help determine if supplements are necessary for you and ensure your approach to muscle health is both effective and safe.

What exercises improve muscle health?

A balanced approach, including resistance training, cardiovascular exercises, and flexibility work, caters to various aspects of muscle health, from enhancing mass and strength to preventing atrophy, particularly as muscles age.

Resistance training

Resistance or strength training is instrumental in building muscle mass and strength [3]. By challenging your muscles with weights or other resistance, you stimulate muscle protein synthesis, leading to growth. 

This form of exercise is also a key player in combating muscle atrophy, a concern especially for older adults. 

Incorporate exercises like squats, deadlifts, and bench presses a few times a week to impact your muscle health significantly, irrespective of your fitness level.

Cardiovascular exercises

While often associated with heart health, cardiovascular exercises also play a crucial role in muscle endurance and overall health. 

Activities like brisk walking, cycling, and swimming enhance blood flow, improving oxygen and nutrient delivery to your muscles. 

For aging muscles, regular cardio can help maintain muscle health, support endurance, and prevent the decline in muscle function.

Flexibility and mobility

Incorporating flexibility and mobility exercises into your routine is essential for maintaining muscle function and preventing injuries. 

Stretching exercises, yoga, and Pilates improve your range of motion, ensuring your muscles and joints work together efficiently. 

This is particularly important for aging muscles, as it helps address stiffness and mobility issues, promoting longevity in muscle health.

Sample routines for different fitness levels

For beginners, a balanced routine might start with light resistance training twice a week, combined with 30 minutes of cardiovascular exercises like walking or cycling on alternate days. To round out your weekly regimen, add flexibility exercises or yoga sessions.

Intermediate enthusiasts could increase the intensity of resistance training by incorporating heavier weights and varied equipment. 

Cardio sessions could involve more challenging activities like jogging or high-intensity interval training (HIIT), while continuing to emphasize flexibility.

Advanced individuals might engage in focused resistance training four to five times weekly, targeting different muscle groups each session. 

Integrate intense cardio workouts and advanced flexibility routines to maintain muscle health and address aging concerns.

Adapting your exercise routine to your current fitness level while progressively challenging your muscles ensures you support muscle health effectively. 

Whether aiming to prevent atrophy or support aging muscles, a combination of resistance training, cardiovascular exercises, and flexibility work can offer comprehensive benefits, enhancing your quality of life. 

Sample routines for different fitness levels

What are some common muscle disorders?

Conditions like muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, and fibromyalgia impact not only muscle mass and strength but also overall quality of life. 

Muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy encompasses a group of inherited disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness and loss [4]. 

The root cause lies in genetic anomalies that interfere with the production of muscle proteins necessary for healthy muscle function. Symptoms gradually escalate, leading to significant muscle atrophy and mobility issues. 

While there’s no cure, maintaining physical activity within comfortable limits can help preserve muscle function and slow progression. 

Regular, gentle exercises and physical therapy are recommended to support mobility and reduce the risk of muscle atrophy.

Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis results from an autoimmune response where the body mistakenly attacks connections between nerves and muscles, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue [5]. 

The onset can be linked to factors like genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Management focuses on medications to improve muscle strength and interventions like physical therapy. 

Strengthening exercises tailored to individual capabilities can help mitigate muscle weakness, emphasizing the importance of maintaining muscle mass as a buffer against rapid decline.


Though primarily associated with widespread pain, fibromyalgia also affects muscle health, leading to stiffness and decreased physical function [6]. 

The exact cause remains unclear, but it’s believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors, affecting how the brain processes pain signals. 

Strategies to prevent worsening symptoms include regular aerobic exercises and strength training to enhance muscle mass and reduce the impact of muscle atrophy. A balanced diet rich in anti-inflammatory foods can also support muscle health.

Sarcopenia (muscle atrophy)

Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, poses significant challenges as we age [7]. 

It results from a combination of factors, including reduced physical activity and changes in hormone levels. 

Engaging in resistance and strength training exercises can counteract these effects, helping to preserve muscle mass and strength, which are essential for maintaining independence and quality of life in older adults.

How can I keep my muscles healthy?

Maintaining muscle health is paramount for overall wellness, mobility, and quality of life. Here are actionable tips to ensure your muscles remain strong and functional, regardless of your age or fitness level.

1. Balanced nutrition

A diet rich in proteins, healthy fats, and carbohydrates fuels muscle growth and repair. Incorporate a variety of foods, including lean meats, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, to provide the nutrients your muscles need. 

Don’t forget the importance of micronutrients—vitamins and minerals like magnesium and vitamin D—are crucial for muscle function.

2. Regular exercise

Combining different types of exercises is key. Resistance training builds muscle mass and strength, cardiovascular exercise supports heart health and endurance, and flexibility workouts enhance muscle recovery and prevent injuries. 

Tailor your exercise routine to your fitness level and goals, and adjust as you progress.

3. Stay hydrated

Water is essential for optimal muscle health. It aids in nutrient transport to your muscles and helps remove waste products from your body. 

Ensure adequate hydration before, during, and after exercise to enhance performance and recovery.

4. Adequate rest

Muscles need to recover and grow after workouts. Ensure you’re getting enough sleep and rest days between intense exercise sessions. 

Pay attention to your body’s signals and allow sufficient recovery time to prevent overuse injuries and support muscle health.

5. Monitor your health

Get regular check-ups to help identify any underlying conditions that may affect muscle health, like hormonal imbalances, or nutritional deficiencies. Early detection and management can prevent further muscle deterioration.

6. Stay consistent

Consistency in your diet and exercise routine is crucial for maintaining muscle health. Set realistic goals and develop habits that you can stick to long-term.

Closing thoughts

Understanding and maintaining muscle health is a vital component of overall wellness, impacting everything from daily activities to long-term vitality. This guide has illuminated the significance of muscles in our bodies, the effects of aging, and strategies to combat common disorders. 

You can support and enhance your muscle health through balanced nutrition, regular exercise, mindful supplementation, hydration, and rest. 

Remember, maintaining strong muscles requires a consistent and holistic approach tailored to your needs and lifestyle. Prioritize muscle health today to lay the foundation for a stronger, healthier tomorrow, empowering you to lead an active and fulfilling life.


How do you know if your muscles are healthy?

You know your muscles are healthy if you have strong muscle strength and endurance, demonstrated by your ability to perform daily tasks and exercises without undue fatigue. Regular assessments of muscle mass and function, like DXA scans or strength tests, also provide concrete indicators of muscle health.

What is the best vitamins for muscle health?

Vitamin D and B vitamins are crucial for optimal muscle health; Vitamin D enhances muscle strength and function, while B vitamins support energy production and the repair and growth of muscles. Ensuring adequate intake of these can significantly benefit muscle health.

How do you help aging muscles?

To help aging muscles, engage in regular resistance and endurance training to maintain muscle mass and strength, and ensure a diet rich in protein, vitamins, and minerals. These strategies combat sarcopenia and promote overall muscle health as you age.


Photograph: DragonImages/Envato Elements
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