Muscle health supplements: Benefits, risks, types, examples

Maintaining muscle health is crucial for overall physical fitness and well-being. With the rise in fitness awareness, many individuals are turning to muscle health supplements to boost their strength, enhance recovery, and support muscle growth.

Muscle-enhancing dietary supplements (MEDS) are notably common among university students. Studies show that 42% of male students and 40% of female students regularly use these supplements [1].

Interestingly, the reasons for using muscle health supplements often vary between genders, highlighting the diverse motivations and needs of individuals seeking to improve their muscle health.

If you’re a fitness enthusiast or a beginner looking to improve muscle health, understanding the benefits, risks, and types of muscle health supplements can be incredibly helpful.

What are muscle health supplements?

Muscle health supplements are dietary products that support and enhance muscle function, growth, and recovery [2]. They come in various forms, including powders, capsules, tablets, and liquids.

These supplements are often utilized by athletes, bodybuilders, and fitness enthusiasts, but they can also be advantageous for anyone aiming to enhance their muscle health.

Key nutrients in muscle health supplements

Each nutrient in muscle health supplements significantly enhances muscle function, growth, and recovery. The table below provides a detailed overview of these essential nutrients, including their descriptions, benefits, and common sources. 

ProteinsEssential for muscle repair and growth, proteins are the building blocks of muscle tissue
Amino acidsCompounds that make up proteins and play a vital role in muscle repair and growth
CreatineA substance found naturally in muscle cells that helps produce energy during high-intensity exercise, improving strength and power
Beta-alanineAn amino acid that helps reduce muscle fatigue by buffering acid in muscles during intense exercise
Omega-3 fatty acidsKnown for their anti-inflammatory properties, these fats can aid in muscle recovery and reduce soreness

Which is the best supplement for muscles?

Muscle health supplements come in various forms, each designed to address different aspects of muscle function, growth, and recovery.

Understanding the types of supplements available can help you choose the ones that best meet your fitness goals and nutritional needs. Here are some common types of muscle health supplements:

Protein supplements

Protein supplements are essential for supporting muscle repair, growth, and overall health [3]. They come in various forms, each with unique benefits and ideal usage scenarios. 

Whey proteinMilkQuickly absorbed, ideal for post-workout recovery and muscle repair
Casein proteinMilkSlowly digested, provides sustained amino acid release, ideal before bedtime
Plant-based proteinsVarious plants (e.g., soy, pea, hemp)Suitable for lactose intolerant and vegans, provides essential amino acids, supports muscle health

Amino acids

Amino acids form the foundation of proteins and are vital in muscle recovery, development, and general well-being [4]. Various amino acid supplements are available, each providing distinct advantages to help you achieve your fitness objectives.

TypeBenefitsIdeal usage
Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)Reduces muscle soreness and fatigue, enhances recovery, supports muscle growthBefore, during, or after workouts
Essential Amino Acids (EAAs)Supports muscle repair and growth, is essential for protein synthesis, and provides all necessary amino acidsAnytime, especially post-workout for muscle repair


Creatine is a well-researched and popular muscle health supplement known for enhancing muscle mass, strength, and exercise performance [5]. Various forms of creatine are available, each with unique properties and benefits. 

TypeBenefitsIdeal usage
Creatine monohydrateIncreases muscle mass, strength, and exercise performance; widely researched and proven effectiveDaily supplementation; post-workout
Creatine ethyl esterPotentially better absorption, may require lower dosesDaily supplementation; pre- or post-workout
Buffered creatineDesigned to reduce stomach discomfort and improve stability in the digestive systemDaily supplementation; pre- or post-workout
Creatine hydrochloride (HCL)Highly soluble in water, potentially leading to better absorption and less bloatingDaily supplementation; pre- or post-workout
woman working out in the gym using a dumbbell


Beta-alanine, an amino acid, is crucial for improving muscle endurance and performance by boosting carnosine levels in muscles [6]. This delay in muscle fatigue during high-intensity exercise enables longer and more productive workouts.

Beta-alanine supplements are available in different forms, each offering unique benefits and convenience.

TypeBenefitsIdeal usage
Beta-alanine powderIncreases carnosine levels in muscles, delays muscle fatigue, enhances endurance and performanceDaily supplementation; typically before workouts
Beta-alanine capsulesConvenient and easy to take, it has the same benefits as powder form, but with precise dosingDaily supplementation; typically before workouts

Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids, which are crucial fats, offer various health advantages, such as diminishing inflammation, promoting the well-being of the heart and brain, and assisting in muscle recovery [7].

The table below provides a detailed overview of the most common omega-3 fatty acid supplements, including their sources, benefits, and ideal usage.

TypeSourceBenefitsIdeal usage
Fish oilFish (e.g., salmon, mackerel)Rich in EPA and DHA, reduces inflammation, supports heart and brain health, aids in muscle recoveryDaily supplementation, with meals
Flaxseed oilFlaxseedsRich in ALA, supports heart health, provides anti-inflammatory benefits, suitable for vegetariansDaily supplementation, with meals or added to foods
Chia seed oilChia seedsRich in ALA, supports heart health, suitable for vegetarians and vegansDaily supplementation, with meals or added to foods

Other muscle health supplements

In addition to the more commonly known supplements, several other supplements can be crucial in supporting muscle health. These supplements offer unique benefits that enhance muscle recovery, maintenance, and overall performance.

TypeBenefitsIdeal usage
GlutamineSupports muscle recovery, immune function, and gut health; beneficial during intense training or stressDaily supplementation, particularly post-workout or during periods of high stress
HMB (Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate)Prevents muscle protein breakdown, supports muscle maintenance and growth, particularly during calorie restriction or intense trainingDaily supplementation, typically taken before or after workouts
Nitric oxide boostersImproves blood flow to muscles during exercise, enhances nutrient delivery, reduces muscle fatigue, and improves workout performancePre-workout supplementation to enhance performance and reduce fatigue

What are the benefits of muscle supplements?

Muscle health supplements provide several benefits for those seeking to improve their physical performance, strength, and overall health. Here are some important advantages:

1. Improved muscle strength and endurance

Muscle health supplements are designed to boost muscle strength and endurance [8]. These supplements aid in better workout performance by providing the body with crucial nutrients that support muscle function, thus enabling more effective training sessions.

2. Enhanced muscle growth

Muscle growth, or hypertrophy, is a primary goal for many individuals engaged in strength training and fitness routines. 

Supplements like protein powders, amino acids, and creatine aid in muscle protein synthesis, essential for muscle development. They supply the building blocks needed for muscle repair and growth, resulting in greater muscle mass and strength.

3. Faster recovery times

Efficient recovery is essential for preserving muscle health and sustaining ongoing progress in your fitness regimen. A key advantage of muscle health supplements is their capacity to accelerate recovery times.

Supplements like BCAAs and omega-3 fatty acids reduce muscle soreness and inflammation, helping you recover quickly after intense exercise [9]. 

Muscle health supplements play a vital role in speeding up recovery times, allowing you to return to your workouts feeling stronger and more prepared. 

4. Better nutrient intake

Obtaining all the essential nutrients for muscle health through diet alone can be difficult for some people.

Muscle health supplements can help fill this gap by providing the necessary nutrients for muscle repair, growth, and overall function. These supplements guarantee that you obtain sufficient amounts of proteins.

5. Support for overall physical performance

Muscle health supplements enhance muscle strength and growth and play a vital role in boosting overall physical performance

These supplements help you perform at your best in various physical activities, from weightlifting to endurance sports, by improving energy levels, reducing fatigue, and supporting muscle function.

Are muscle health supplements safe?

Although muscle health supplements provide many benefits, it’s essential to recognize potential risks. Awareness of these risks allows you to make informed choices and safely use supplements.

Let’s discuss some key risks associated with muscle health supplements:

Potential side effects

The side effects of muscle health supplements can vary depending on the type of supplement and individual sensitivities. Here are some common side effects:

1. Digestive issues

Protein supplements, particularly those derived from dairy, such as whey and casein, can cause digestive problems in some individuals [10]. Common issues include:

  • Bloating
  • Gas
  • Cramps
  • Diarrhea

These symptoms often relate to lactose intolerance or sensitivity to specific protein types. Consider using plant-based protein supplements or lactose-free options to mitigate these side effects.

2. Allergic reactions

Some people might have allergic reactions to specific ingredients in muscle health supplements, with symptoms varying from mild itching and rashes to severe swelling, difficulty breathing, and anaphylaxis.

Carefully reading ingredient labels and starting with a small dose to check for adverse reactions is crucial.

3. Hormonal imbalances

Certain supplements, particularly those marketed for muscle growth and strength, may contain ingredients that can affect hormone levels.

For example, testosterone boosters can alter hormonal balance, leading to side effects such as mood swings, acne, and changes in libido. Approaching these supplements cautiously and seeking professional advice before use is important.

4. Kidney and liver strain

Excessive intake of protein can put pressure on the kidneys and liver, especially in individuals with pre-existing kidney or liver issues. Prolonged high levels of protein can lead to the formation of kidney stones or exacerbate kidney disease.

Likewise, the excessive consumption of creatine can add to the strain on the kidneys. It is crucial to follow recommended dosages and seek advice from a healthcare professional, particularly if you have any underlying health issues.

5. Sleep disturbances

Some muscle health supplements contain stimulants such as caffeine or other energy-boosting ingredients. While these can enhance workout performance, they may also lead to sleep disturbances if taken too close to bedtime. 

Difficulty falling asleep, poor sleep quality, and restlessness are some of the symptoms. To avoid these side effects, use stimulant-containing supplements earlier in the day.

6. Dehydration

Creatine supplementation can cause water retention in muscles, which may lead to dehydration if fluid intake is not adequately increased. Symptoms of dehydration include:

  • Dry mouth
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Dark urine

Ensure you drink plenty of water throughout the day to prevent dehydration, especially when taking creatine.

Risk of overconsumption

Overconsumption of muscle health supplements can lead to serious health issues, making it crucial to adhere to recommended dosages. Here are some potential risks associated with taking too much of these supplements:

  • Protein overload: Consuming excessive protein can strain the kidneys and liver. High protein intake, especially from supplements, can lead to kidney stones and worsen pre-existing kidney conditions. 
  • Creatine excess: Overconsumption of creatine may lead to dehydration, muscle cramping, and gastrointestinal issues such as bloating and diarrhea [11]. In extreme cases, excessive creatine intake can contribute to kidney damage. 
  • Stimulant overuse: Excessive consumption of caffeine and other stimulants can lead to negative effects such as increased heart rate, insomnia, jitteriness, and high blood pressure. 
  • Vitamin and mineral toxicity: Excessive intake of certain vitamins and minerals can be harmful. For example, too much vitamin D can lead to hypercalcemia (high calcium levels), causing nausea, weakness, and kidney problems. 

Awareness of overconsumption risks is crucial for safely using muscle health supplements.

Always follow the dosage recommended by the manufacturer and consult a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement routine, especially if you have preexisting health conditions or are taking other medications.

Dependency and psychological effects

Muscle health supplements can be a valuable addition to a fitness regimen, but there’s a risk of developing dependency and experiencing psychological effects. Here are some concerns to be aware of:

1. Psychological dependency

Reliance on muscle health supplements can lead to psychological dependency, where individuals believe they cannot achieve their fitness goals without them. This mindset can diminish motivation to maintain other important aspects of health, such as proper nutrition, adequate rest, and consistent training.

2. Neglect of holistic health approaches

When supplements become the primary focus, individuals might neglect other essential aspects of a holistic health approach.

Proper nutrition, exercise, sleep, and stress management are all crucial for muscle health and overall well-being. More reliance on supplements can result in a lack of attention to these areas, potentially leading to imbalances and health issues in the long run.

3. Social and emotional impact

Dependency on muscle health supplements can also have significant social and emotional aspects. Individuals might feel pressured to conform to body standards promoted by fitness culture and social media.

This pressure can lead to stress, anxiety, and feelings of inadequacy when results are not as expected. The emotional impact of not meeting perceived standards can affect overall mental health and well-being.

4. Diminished self-confidence

Regular use of supplements to enhance muscle growth and performance might negatively impact self-confidence and body image.

Individuals may become dissatisfied with their natural progress and feel compelled to continue or increase supplement usage to meet their expectations. This can lead to a cycle of dependency and continuous searching for the next best supplement.

How do you choose the right muscle health supplement?

How do you choose the right muscle health supplement?

With numerous choices available, choosing supplements that match your specific needs and objectives is crucial. Here are some important factors to consider when selecting muscle health supplements:

1. Assess your fitness goals and needs

Are you looking to increase muscle mass, enhance endurance, speed up recovery, or support overall health? Understanding your primary objectives will help you narrow down the supplement options that best suit your needs.

The type and intensity of your workouts can influence the kind of supplements you might need. For example, heavy weightlifters may benefit from creatine, while endurance athletes might prefer BCAAs and omega-3s [12].

2. Consider dietary restrictions and preferences

If you have dietary restrictions, such as lactose intolerance or follow a vegan diet, opt for supplements that cater to these needs. Plant-based protein powders are excellent for those who avoid dairy.

Check ingredient labels for potential allergens or substances you may be sensitive to. This will ensure you choose a supplement that won’t cause adverse reactions.

3. Consult a healthcare professional

Before starting any new supplement, it’s important to consult with a healthcare professional, especially if you have underlying health conditions or are taking medications.

Moreover, a registered dietitian can help you develop a comprehensive nutrition plan with the right supplements to meet your fitness goals.

4. Evaluate your budget

Compare the cost per serving of different supplements to determine the best value for your money. Sometimes, higher-priced products offer better quality or more benefits.

5. Check the quality and brand reputation

Look for supplements that have been tested by third-party organizations. This ensures the product’s quality, purity, and accuracy of labeling.

Choose supplements from reputable brands with positive reviews and a history of producing high-quality products. Research the brand’s manufacturing practices and commitment to transparency.

Final takeaways

Choosing the right muscle health supplements can significantly enhance your fitness journey, supporting muscle growth, recovery, and overall performance.

Remember, supplements should complement a balanced diet and consistent exercise routine, not replace them. You can reach your fitness goals more efficiently by integrating the right supplements into your lifestyle.

Stay informed, choose wisely, and keep pushing toward your health and fitness milestones.


What are the benefits of muscle health supplements?

Muscle health supplements can enhance muscle growth, strength, recovery, and overall physical performance.

What are the types of muscle health supplements?

Common types include protein powders, amino acids, creatine, beta-alanine, omega-3 fatty acids, and other specific supplements like glutamine and HMB.

What are the risks associated with muscle health supplement use?

Risks include potential side effects, overconsumption, medication interactions, and quality concerns.


The information included in this article is for informational purposes only. The purpose of this webpage is to promote broad consumer understanding and knowledge of various health topics. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or treatment and before undertaking a new health care regimen, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.