Neurological disorders – Signs, facts and treatment

Neurological conditions encompass a vast array of medical ailments that impact the brain, spinal cord and nervous system. These complex systems transmit vital messages from the brain to the remainder of the body, and any disruption to this intricate process can result in a multitude of symptoms.

These disorders can arise from different causes, ranging from genetics to environmental factors.

However, regardless of the underlying cause, the symptoms of neurological disorders can be mild or severe; some can even be life-threatening and require prompt treatment, as well as being incredibly debilitating and impacting every aspect of a person’s life. 

According to WHO (World Health Organization), there is a staggering number of individuals worldwide, reaching up to 1 billion people, who are impacted by neurological disorders [1].

Unfortunately, these conditions are responsible for an estimated 6.8 million deaths annually. In the United States, neurological disorders affect an estimated 100 million individuals or nearly one-third of the population [2].

This article will discuss the signs, facts, diagnosis, causes and treatment options for neurological disorders.

Types of neurological disorders

There are many different neurological disorders, each with its own symptoms and treatments. Some of the most common types of neurological disorders include:

Alzheimer’s disease

This disease is one of the most well-known neurological disorders, affecting millions worldwide. More than 6 million Americans have Alzheimer’s disease, according to the Alzheimer’s Association. Additionally, this number might more than double in 2050 [3].

This progressive brain disorder affects memory, thinking, and behavior and is the most common cause of dementia in older adults.

Parkinson’s disease

A progressive neurological disorder, Parkinson’s, results from the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, which affects movement. The incidence of Parkinson’s disease occurrences tends to rise with age, with the typical onset age being approximately 60 [4].

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

This chronic autoimmune disorder affects the central nervous system causing a wide range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination.


This neurological condition results from abnormal brain activity, which causes recurrent seizures. Several factors, including genetic predisposition, brain injury, or infection, can cause these seizures. 

Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) occur when a forceful impact is sustained to the head, leading to severe neurological impairments. This condition can cause various physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that drastically reduce a person’s overall quality of life. 


When blood flow to the brain is interrupted by clotting or bursting blood vessels, it may cause brain damage and result in different neurological problems.


A neurological disorder characterized by persistent severe headaches, often accompanied by other symptoms such as visual disturbances and sensitivity to light and sound.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

This progressive neurodegenerative disease affects nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movements, eventually leading to muscle weakness, paralysis, and difficulty speaking, swallowing, and breathing.


This condition occurs when there is nerve damage or dysfunction, resulting in numbness, tingling, and weakness.

These are some of the examples of the many neurological disorders that exist [5]. Each disorder presents its challenges and requires a tailored approach to diagnosis and treatment.

It is essential for individuals experiencing neurological symptoms to seek medical evaluation and guidance for proper diagnosis and management.

Types of neurological disorders
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What are the signs and symptoms of neurological disorders?

Neurological disorders cause a wide range of signs and symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the disorder. Here are some of the signs and symptoms of neurological disorders [6]:

1. Muscle weakness or paralysis

This common symptom affects one or more body muscles and ranges from mild to severe. Neurological conditions like multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, and Lou Gehrig’s disease (ALS) can lead to muscle weakness.

2. Difficulty speaking or swallowing

This symptom can be caused by various conditions, including stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and ALS. People with difficulty speaking or swallowing may experience slurred speech, difficulty forming words, or choking when eating.

3. Seizures or tremors

Various factors, including epilepsy, brain tumors, and infections, can cause seizures. Seizures and /or tremors result in loss of consciousness, muscle contractions, and confusion. Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and other neurological conditions can cause tremors.

4. Loss of sensation, weakness, or numbness

This symptom affects one or more body parts and can be caused by multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathy, and spinal cord injuries. If you experience sudden weakness or numbness on one side of your body, this could be a sign of a stroke or other neurological condition. 

5. Memory loss or confusion

These symptoms affect a person’s ability to think, reason, and remember important information, and they can be symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. 

6. Mood changes or depression

Sudden changes in mood or depressive moods can be caused by Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and traumatic brain injury.

7. Vision changes

A sudden or severe change in vision may indicate a neurological disorder. 

8. Headaches

Severe or persistent headaches should not be ignored because they might be a symptom of a neurological disorder. 

If you are experiencing any of the above symptoms, seeking medical attention immediately is important.

Doctors will perform neurological exams that may include testing your reflexes, muscle strength, and coordination to assess your condition. Your doctor may also request imaging tests, such as a CT scan or MRI, to help diagnose your condition.

What are the causes and risk factors for neurological disorders?

Understanding the causes and risk factors for neurological disorders can help people take steps to reduce their risk. Some of these factors include the following [7]:


Inherited traits or genetic mutations cause some neurological disorders. An instance of a disease caused by a mutation in the huntingtin gene is Huntington’s disease.

This mutation causes gradual destruction of nerve cells in the brain. Other neurological disorders that have a genetic component include muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

Photograph: sofiiashunkina/Envato


Brain or spinal cord inflammation may cause neurological symptoms. Examples of infections causing neurological disorders include meningitis, encephalitis, and HIV. In some cases, infections can also cause autoimmune disorders that affect the nervous system, like Guillain-Barre syndrome.


Head or spinal cord trauma can cause neurological disorders. For instance, a concussion can cause temporary loss of consciousness, while a spinal cord injury can lead to paralysis. Other types of injury, like stroke or brain injury, can also cause neurological symptoms.

Environmental factors

Another cause of neurological disorders is chemical exposure to lead or mercury. Other environmental factors contributing to neurological disorders include poor nutrition, stress, and lack of sleep. Exposure to radiation, pesticides, or other chemicals can also increase the risk of neurological disorders.

Age and sex

Some neurological disorders are more common in certain age groups or a particular sex. For instance, Alzheimer’s disease is more common in older adults, while multiple sclerosis is more common in females than males. Parkinson’s disease also tends to affect more men than women.

Other risk factors

A family history of neurological problems like smoking, drinking, and exposure to specific viruses or bacteria are additional risk factors for neurological disorders. People with certain medical conditions, like diabetes or high blood pressure, may also be at increased risk for neurological disorders.

What are the effects of neurological disorders?

The effects of neurological disorders vary depending on the type and severity of the disorder. Some common effects of neurological disorders include:

Physical effects

Neurological disorders can lead to various physical effects like muscle weakness, tremors, and coordination loss [8]. These physical effects make it difficult for people to perform everyday tasks and limit mobility.

Cognitive effects

The cognitive effects of neurological disorders include memory loss, poor concentration, and confusion [9]. These cognitive effects make it challenging for people to work, socialize, and perform other activities that require mental clarity.

Emotional effects

Many neurological disorders also have emotional effects, like depression, anxiety, and mood swings [10]. A person’s quality of life may be significantly impacted by these emotional impacts, making it difficult to maintain relationships and carry out daily chores.

Social effects

The social effects of neurological disorders include isolation and withdrawal from social activities. People with neurological disorders may feel embarrassed or self-conscious about their symptoms and avoid social situations [11].

Financial or economic effects

People with neurological disorders may require expensive medical treatments, medications, and assistive devices. They may also be unable to work or require workplace accommodations [12].

Co-occurring conditions of neurological disorders

Neurological disorders often co-occur with other medical conditions, complicating diagnosis and treatment. Understanding the co-occurring conditions and disorders of neurological disorders is vital for healthcare providers and patients alike. 

Mental health conditions

Depression, mood and anxiety disorders are some of the most common mental health conditions that can co-occur with neurological disorders.

The neurological disorder can cause these conditions or be a side effect of medications used to treat the disorder.

People with neurological disorders may also be at increased risk for substance abuse and addiction, further complicating treatment.

Sleep disorders

Insomnia, restless leg syndrome, and sleep apnea are some of the most common sleep disorders that co-occur with neurological disorders. These conditions can significantly impact a person’s quality of life, affecting mood, cognitive function, and overall health.

Chronic pain

Several neurological disorders, like multiple sclerosis and fibromyalgia, cause chronic pain, can be difficult to manage, and significantly impact a person’s quality of life. Treatment often involves a combination of medication, physical therapy, and other therapies.

Cardiovascular conditions

High blood pressure and heart disease can also co-occur with neurological disorders. Some medications used to treat neurological disorders can also increase the risk of cardiovascular conditions.

It is crucial for healthcare providers to monitor the cardiovascular health of people with neurological disorders and to make appropriate recommendations for treatment.

Gastrointestinal conditions

GI issues like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can also co-occur with neurological disorders. Healthcare providers must monitor the gastrointestinal health of people with neurological disorders and make appropriate treatment recommendations.

Neurogenic bladder and bowel

These conditions occur when there are damaged nerves that control the bladder and bowel. People with this condition may experience incontinence, difficulty urinating or defecating, and other symptoms.

Treatment options include lifestyle change, Botox injections, medications, clean intermittent catheterization (CIC), stimulation, and surgery.


People with epilepsy may also be at increased risk for depression, anxiety, and other mental health conditions. Treatment options for epilepsy include anti-epileptic drugs, brain surgery, vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation, and keto diet.

How are neurological disorders diagnosed?

When diagnosing neurological disorders, doctors use several tests to determine the underlying cause of a patient’s symptoms.

These tests range from basic physical exams to complex imaging studies and are designed to provide doctors with a detailed understanding of the patient’s condition [13]. 

1. Physical exam

The physical exam is often the first step in diagnosing a neurological disorder. During this time, the doctor will evaluate the patient’s overall health and look for signs of neurological problems.

This may include testing reflexes, checking muscle strength, and evaluating the patient’s ability to walk and balance.

2. Neurological exam

A neurological exam is a more detailed evaluation of the patient’s nervous system. During this exam, the doctor will assess the patient’s mental status, cranial nerves, motor function, sensory function, and reflexes.

This exam will help identify the specific area of the affected nervous system and provide insights into the root cause of the patient’s symptoms.

3. Imaging tests

These tests allow doctors to see inside the brain and identify any abnormalities. Some of the most commonly used imaging tests include:

  • MRI – MRI is a medical imaging test that utilizes radio waves and magnetic fields to create detailed brain and spinal cord images. This test can help identify abnormalities such as tumors, strokes, and multiple sclerosis.
  • CT scan – a CT scan is an imaging test that uses X-rays to create detailed brain and spinal cord images. This test can help identify abnormalities such as bleeding, tumors, and skull fractures.
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) – PET is an imaging test that uses a radioactive substance to create brain images. This test can help identify abnormalities like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and epilepsy.
  • Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) – This imaging test uses radioactive substances to create brain images, thus helping identify abnormalities such as seizures, brain tumors, and Alzheimer’s disease.
imaging tests
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4. Electroencephalogram (EEG) 

This measures the electrical activity in the brain and is often used to diagnose epilepsy and sleep disorders.

5. Nerve conduction studies (NCS)

NCS tests measure the speed and strength of electrical impulses as they travel through the nerves. This test can help diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome and peripheral neuropathy.

6. Lumbar puncture

A lumbar puncture or a spinal tap is a procedure that involves inserting a needle into the space surrounding the spinal cord to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

This fluid can be tested for signs of infection or inflammation, which can help diagnose conditions such as meningitis and multiple sclerosis.

7. Biopsy

A biopsy involves removing a small piece of tissue from the brain or spinal cord for analysis. This test is often used to diagnose brain tumors and encephalitis.

8. Electromyography (EMG)

This diagnostic test measures the electrical activity of muscles. It can help diagnose muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, and neuropathy.

It is often performed with nerve conduction studies (NCS) to evaluate the patient’s muscle and nerve function.

If you receive a neurological disorder diagnosis, the treatment will depend on the root cause of your symptoms.

It could involve medication, physical therapy, or surgery. Your doctor will personalize your treatment plan that caters to your requirements and aids in managing your symptoms.

How are neurological disorders treated?

Treating neurological disorders depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms the patient is experiencing. Medication may sometimes be prescribed to manage symptoms such as pain, tremors, and seizures.

While in some, specialists recommend physical therapy, occupational therapy, cognitive therapy or speech therapy to help patients improve their functional abilities [14].

For neurological disorders like Parkinson’s and multiple sclerosis, specific medications and treatments help slow down the progress of the disease and improve quality of life. Surgery may also be an option for some patients, particularly those with epilepsy or brain tumors.

In addition to medical treatments, lifestyle modifications like maintaining a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress management techniques can also be beneficial for managing neurological disorders.

Patients must work closely with their healthcare provider to create a treatment plan tailored to their needs and goals.

How can you prevent neurological disorders?

Preventing neurological disorders can be challenging to prevent especially when hereditary, however, there are several lifestyle modifications that can help reduce the risks, including [15]:

  1. Create a healthy diet of nutritious foods
  2. Protect the head from injuries when doing extreme sports or when on the road
  3. Avoid exposure to chemicals, alcohol, illegal drugs, and cigarettes
  4. Maintain an active lifestyle by exercising regularly
  5. Seek treatment for infections immediately
  6. Get 6 to 8 hours of sleep every day
  7. Engage in social activities that include families and friends


Neurological disorders can be challenging and life-altering for those affected by them. Symptoms of this condition can vary in intensity from mild to severe and may include difficulties with movement, speech, and cognition.

However, with the proper treatment and support, many people with neurological disorders can manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

It’s important to note that not all neurological disorders are the same, and each condition may have unique symptoms and treatment options. 

Treatment for neurological disorders may include medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to manage symptoms or prevent further damage to the nervous system. 

If you or a loved one is experiencing neurological disorder symptoms, it’s important to seek medical attention immediately. With the proper treatment and support, many people with neurological disorders can live full and meaningful lives.


Photograph: LightFieldStudios/Envato
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