Plant-based diet: Benefits, risks, effects, foods

Are you considering a healthier lifestyle but need help determining where to start? A plant-based diet might be the answer you’re looking for. 

This eating pattern focuses primarily on plant foods, including fruits and vegetables and nuts, seeds, oils, whole grains, legumes, and beans. 

Instead, you are proportionately choosing more of your foods from plant sources. With its growing popularity, people everywhere are discovering its benefits for health, the environment, and animal welfare. 

This guide will help you understand what a plant-based diet involves, the various types it encompasses, and how to ensure it meets all your nutritional needs.

What is a plant-based diet?

A plant-based diet centers on maximizing the intake of nutritious foods from plants. This includes many vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes [1]. 

Opting for this diet doesn’t necessitate cutting out meat or dairy entirely; rather, it emphasizes choosing plant-derived foods as the core of your meals.

It is important to understand the differences between plant-based, vegan, and vegetarian diets to make informed dietary choices.

A vegan diet excludes all animal products, like dairy, eggs, and honey, and instead focuses entirely on plant-based foods for ethical, environmental, or health reasons.

Vegetarian diets, on the other hand, exclude meat but may include dairy products and eggs. The plant-based diet stands out for its inclusivity and flexibility, allowing for a broader array of food choices catering to individual preferences and nutritional needs.

This distinction is vital because it highlights the adaptability of a plant-based diet to various lifestyles and health goals. 

With its emphasis on whole foods and minimally processed ingredients, adopting a plant-based diet can be a transformative step towards a healthier, more sustainable lifestyle.

What are the various types of plant-based diets?

Whole-foods plant-based diet

This diet emphasizes whole, unprocessed, or minimally processed plants. It’s rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, seeds, and nuts, minimizing or excluding animal products and processed foods. Its focus on whole foods maximizes nutrient intake and promotes overall health.

Flexitarian diet

The flexitarian approach is about flexibility, combining ‘flexible’ and ‘vegetarian’ [2]. It encourages mostly plant-based foods while allowing for occasional meat and fish. 

This diet appeals to those seeking to reduce meat consumption without eliminating it entirely, making it a practical choice for gradually shifting towards more plant-based eating.

Vegetarian diet


Includes dairy products but excludes meat, fish, poultry, and eggs.


Includes eggs but excludes meat, fish, poultry, and dairy.

Both variations focus on plant-based foods, including dairy or eggs, to supplement nutritional needs, catering to those who wish to avoid meat for health, ethical, or environmental reasons.

What are the various types of plant-based diets?

Vegan diet

Strictly excludes all animal products, including dairy, eggs, and honey. Vegans focus solely on plant foods, often driven by ethical concerns about animal welfare, environmental protection, and health benefits.

Raw vegan diet

A subset of veganism, this diet only includes raw plant-based foods or cooked at temperatures below 118°F (48°C) [3]. Proponents believe that lower cooking temperatures preserve the nutritional value of foods.

Pescatarian diet

This diet combines vegetarian eating with fish and seafood as the primary source of protein. It excludes other meats, offering a compromise for those looking to benefit from plant-based eating while consuming fish for its omega-3 fatty acids.

What are the benefits of a plant-based diet?

Adopting a plant-based diet brings many benefits, from personal health to global environmental impacts. 

Each point highlights how a plant-based diet is a personal health choice and a step towards a more sustainable and ethical lifestyle. 

By opting for more plant-based foods, you’re making a decision that benefits your health and the planet and its inhabitants.

Health benefits

Improved heart health

Research has consistently found that plant-based diets are associated with lower rates of heart disease, high blood pressure, and cholesterol levels [4].

The abundance of fiber, vitamins, and minerals and the low presence of saturated fats in plants support heart health.

Weight management and obesity prevention

Plant-based diets are effective in promoting weight loss and maintaining a healthy weight. High fiber content enhances satiety, helping to reduce calorie intake without feeling deprived.

Better blood sugar control and diabetes management

A diet rich in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity. The American Diabetes Association acknowledges the benefits of such diets in managing blood glucose levels [5].

Enhanced digestive health

Plant-based foods have high fiber content that supports gut health, promoting regular bowel movements and a healthy gut microbiome. This can reduce the risk of gastrointestinal disorders.

Environmental benefits

Lower greenhouse gas emissions

Animal agriculture contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. Transitioning to a plant-based diet can significantly reduce your carbon footprint as plants require less energy from fossil fuels to grow [6].

Reduced water and land use

Plant-based foods are generally more water and land-efficient than animal products, meaning your dietary choices can contribute to conserving these precious resources.

Biodiversity preservation

Shifting away from intensive animal farming can lessen the strain on habitats and wildlife, helping to preserve biodiversity.

Ethical and social benefits

Animal welfare considerations

Choosing plant-based options reduces the demand for animal products, contributing to fewer animals being raised in confinement and subjected to farming practices.

Potential for reducing world hunger

The resources used in animal farming could be redirected to produce plant-based foods, which are more efficient in terms of land and water usage and can feed more people.

What are the negatives of plant-based diets?

Embracing a plant-based diet comes with many benefits, yet it’s crucial to be aware of potential nutritional gaps and common pitfalls

This awareness ensures that your diet remains balanced and health-supportive. Here are key considerations and how to navigate them effectively.

Nutritional deficiencies

1. Vitamin B12

Animal products are the primary source of vitamin B12 that, when deficient, can cause anemia and neurological problems. Consider fortified foods or a B12 supplement.

2. Iron

Plant-based iron (non-heme iron) is less readily absorbed by the body. Consuming vitamin C-rich foods alongside iron-rich plant foods can enhance absorption.

3. Calcium

Essential for bone health, calcium can be found in fortified plant milks, tofu, and leafy greens. Ensure you’re meeting your daily needs to avoid long-term bone issues.

4. Omega-3 fatty acids

Crucial for brain health, sources of plant-based omega-3s include flaxseeds, chia seeds, and walnuts. You might also consider algae-based supplements.

Why are planning and diversity important in this diet

A well-planned plant-based diet is key to covering all nutritional bases. Include various foods to ensure you’re getting a broad spectrum of nutrients. This diversity also makes meals more enjoyable and satisfying.

Misconceptions about protein sources

The belief that plant-based diets lack sufficient protein is a common misconception. Legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and soy products are excellent plant-based protein sources.

Understanding how to combine these can ensure you meet your protein needs without animal products.

Overreliance on processed plant-based alternatives

While plant-based burgers and sausages offer convenience and variety, they can also be high in sodium and additives. Focus on whole, minimally processed foods as the core of your diet for optimal health benefits.

By thoughtfully addressing these considerations, you can enjoy the benefits of a plant-based diet while minimizing risks to your health and the environment.

With careful planning and a commitment to nutritional diversity, you can navigate the challenges and thrive on a plant-based diet.

How does a plant-based diet affect your health?

When you switch to a plant-based diet, your body undergoes various changes, from initial adjustments to long-term health transformations. 

Understanding these effects can help you navigate the transition more smoothly and set realistic expectations for your health journey.

Short-term effects

Initially, you might experience detox symptoms as your body adjusts to increased fiber intake and reduced processed foods [7]. 

These symptoms can include changes in digestion, such as bloating or irregular bowel movements, and fluctuations in energy levels. 

However, these are usually temporary. Many report a surge in energy and improved overall well-being once their bodies adapt to the nutrient-rich diet.

Long-term health effects

Adopting a plant-based diet can have profound long-term effects on your health. Research indicates a lower risk of developing chronic diseases like heart disease, and type 2 diabetes [8]. 

Furthermore, the high intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and seeds—packed with antioxidants, fiber, and essential nutrients—can contribute to longer life expectancy.

long-term effects

Psychological and mood effects

Diet plays a significant role in mental health. The nutrients found in a plant-based diet, such as folate, magnesium, and omega-3 fatty acids, have been linked to reductions in depression and improvements in mood and cognitive function [9]. 

The sense of well-being from making ethical food choices can also positively impact psychological health.

Physical performance and muscle building

Contrary to common myths, a plant-based diet can support and even enhance physical performance and muscle building. 

With proper planning to ensure adequate protein intake from sources like legumes, tofu, tempeh, and quinoa, athletes can thrive on a plant-based diet. 

Improved recovery times, reduced inflammation, and better heart health are among the reported benefits for physically active individuals.

Embracing a plant-based diet can be a transformative experience for your body and mind. The benefits can be both immediate and lasting, supporting a healthy, vibrant life.

What foods do you eat on a plant-based diet?

A plant-based diet involves more than just eating more fruits and vegetables and making the switch to a plant-based diet doesn’t have to be restrictive or boring. 

Focus on whole, nutrient-dense foods and limit processed items, so you can enjoy a diverse, flavorful, and healthful diet. 

Foods to eat

  • Whole grains (quinoa, brown rice, barley, and oats)
  • Legumes (beans, lentils, and chickpeas)
  • Nuts and seeds (almonds, walnuts, flaxseeds, and chia seeds)
  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Plant-based proteins (tofu, tempeh, and seitan) 

Foods to limit or avoid

  • Highly processed plant foods (veggie burgers and sausages)
  • Refined sugars and oils
  • Plant-based junk food (chips, cookies, and ice cream)

What supplements do you need on a plant-based diet?

If you’re considering to start a plant-based diet, it’s important to be mindful of potential nutritional gaps that could arise. 

Certain nutrients, more readily available in animal products, might require attention to ensure you’re meeting your daily requirements. 

Let’s explore the essential supplements you might need, how to select the right ones, and the balance between whole food sources and supplement forms.

Necessary supplements

  1. Vitamin B12 – Essential for nerve function and the production of DNA and red blood cells. Since B12 is primarily found in animal products, supplementation is often necessary for those on a plant-based diet.
  2. Vitamin D – Important for bone health and immune function. While the sun is a natural source, those with limited exposure or living in colder climates may benefit from supplementation.
  3. Omega-3 fatty acids – Crucial for brain health and reducing inflammation. Consider algae-based supplements to get DHA and EPA, the most beneficial forms of omega-3 for the body.
  4. Iron – Plant-based iron (non-heme iron) is less easily absorbed. Pairing iron supplements or fortified foods with vitamin C-rich foods can enhance absorption.
  5. Calcium – Vital for bone health. If your diet lacks calcium-rich plant foods, a supplement might be necessary.

How to choose the right plant-based or vegan-friendly supplements

Selecting high-quality supplements is crucial. Look for brands that offer transparency about their sourcing and manufacturing processes. 

Certifications from third-party organizations can also provide assurance about the purity and potency of the product.

Whole food sources vs. supplement forms

Whenever possible, aim to meet your nutritional needs through whole foods. They offer a complex nutritional profile that supplements can’t replicate. 

However, for nutrients like B12 and DHA, supplements or fortified foods may be necessary. 

Balancing your diet with a mix of whole foods and targeted supplementation ensures you’re getting the comprehensive nutrition your body needs.

5 Common mistakes plant-based eaters make

Switching to a plant-based diet is a commendable decision for your health and the environment. 

However, many newcomers and even seasoned plant-based eaters can fall into traps that may hinder their progress and health benefits. Here are five common mistakes to avoid:

1. Not consuming enough variety

Relying on a limited range of foods can lead to nutritional deficiencies. Your body needs a wide array of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants found in different plants. 

Aim to include a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes in your diet to ensure you’re getting a broad spectrum of nutrients.

2. Overlooking protein sources

While it’s a myth that plant-based diets can’t provide enough protein, it is crucial to be mindful of your protein intake. Incorporate protein-rich foods like lentils, chickpeas, tofu, and quinoa into your meals to meet your daily needs.

3. Relying too much on processed foods

The convenience of processed plant-based foods can be tempting. However, many of these products are high in sodium, sugar, and unhealthy fats. 

Focus on whole, minimally processed foods to maximize the health benefits of your plant-based diet.

4. Forgetting about iron and Vitamin B12

These nutrients are typically associated with animal products, but they’re essential for everyone. 

Look for fortified plant milks, cereals, and use nutritional yeast for B12; for iron, eat leafy greens, lentils, and pair them with vitamin C-rich foods to enhance absorption.

5. Neglecting healthy fats

Healthy fats are vital for absorbing fat-soluble vitamins and overall health. Some plant-based eaters mistakenly cut out all fats, which can be detrimental. Include sources of healthy fats like avocados, nuts, seeds, and olive oil in your diet.

Avoiding these common mistakes can help ensure that your plant-based diet is balanced, nutritious, and beneficial for your long-term health and well-being.

Who should avoid a plant-based diet?

Who should avoid a plant-based diet?

Certain conditions and circumstances require careful consideration or even a different approach to diet. Understanding who might need to avoid or modify a plant-based diet is crucial for ensuring optimal health and nutrition.

Individuals with nutrient absorption issues

Those with conditions affecting nutrient absorption, such as Crohn’s disease or celiac disease, might struggle to get enough nutrients from a plant-based diet due to restrictions on certain foods or the body’s reduced ability to absorb nutrients.

People with certain nutritional deficiencies

Individuals already deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, iron, or calcium may find it challenging to correct these deficiencies through a plant-based diet alone, even with supplementation. It is crucial to have constant supervision and guidance from a healthcare professional.

Individuals with multiple food allergies

For those allergic to key plant-based protein sources like soy, nuts, or legumes, achieving a balanced diet can be more complex and may require specialized dietary planning to ensure adequate nutrition.

Pregnant and breastfeeding women

While many can maintain a plant-based diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding, the increased nutritional demands during these periods mean that extra care must be taken to ensure all nutritional needs are met, including sufficient intake of vitamins B12 and D, omega-3, iron, and calcium [10].

Athletes with high caloric and protein needs

Some athletes may find it challenging to meet their elevated caloric and protein requirements through a plant-based diet alone, especially those in strength and endurance sports. While not impossible, it requires diligent planning and might necessitate supplementation.

Children and teenagers

Growing children and teenagers have specific nutritional needs to support their development. 

While a plant-based diet can be healthy for them, it should be carefully planned to ensure it includes enough calories, protein, fats, and essential vitamins and minerals. Consultation with a pediatrician or dietitian is advised.

If you’re considering a plant-based diet, consult a healthcare provider or a dietitian to ensure the plant-based diet supports your overall health and nutritional needs.

How to start a plant-based diet

Tips for beginners

Start with familiar foods. Look for plant-based versions of your favorite meals, like using lentils in tacos instead of beef or making a chickpea salad instead of chicken salad. This familiarity can make the transition less daunting.

Gradually increase plant-based foods

You don’t have to go all-in overnight. You can increase the amount of plant-based foods in your diet gradually. 

For example, dedicate one day a week to eating only plant-based meals and gradually increase from there. 

This gradual approach helps your body and taste buds adjust without feeling overwhelmed.

Meal planning and preparation tips

Spend some time each week planning your meals to ensure variety and nutritional balance. 

Also, batch cooking and preparing snacks in advance can keep you on track during busy times. 

Explore recipes online or invest in a plant-based cookbook to keep mealtime exciting and diverse.

Navigating social and family situations

Dining out or attending family gatherings can seem challenging at first. Look up restaurant menus ahead of time to find plant-based options, and don’t hesitate to ask for modifications. 

When dining with family or friends, offer to bring a plant-based dish to share. It’s a great way to introduce others to the delicious possibilities of plant-based eating without feeling left out.

Communicate your reasons for transitioning to a plant-based diet to your friends and family. 

Sharing your health, ethical, or environmental motivations can help them understand your choices and offer support.

Closing thoughts

Adopting a plant-based diet offers health, environmental, and ethical benefits, but it’s essential to approach this lifestyle change with knowledge and planning. Ensure your diet is balanced, diverse, and tailored to meet your nutritional needs. 

Remember, the journey to a plant-based lifestyle is personal and can be adapted to fit your specific health circumstances and goals. 

If you’re inspired to make a change, start small, be consistent, and seek support when needed.

For more guidance and resources on embarking on a plant-based journey, explore our website or reach out to a healthcare provider. Your path to wellness through plant-based eating begins with a single, informed step.


Is a plant-based diet healthy?

A plant-based diet of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and seeds, can offer significant health benefits, including reduced heart disease risks and diabetes. However, it requires careful planning to avoid nutritional deficiencies.

Can you eat eggs and fish on a plant-based diet?

Yes, you can include eggs and fish in a plant-based diet if you opt for a flexitarian or pescatarian approach, which allows for animal products in moderation while focusing mainly on plant-derived foods.

Is rice considered plant-based?

Yes, rice is a grain that comes from the rice plant, making it a staple food in many plant-based diets for its versatility and ability to provide essential carbohydrates and nutrients.

Is bread plant-based food?

Bread can be considered plant-based if it’s made from ingredients like wheat, water, and yeast without animal products like milk, butter, or eggs, making many traditional and artisanal breads suitable for a plant-based diet.


The information included in this article is for informational purposes only. The purpose of this webpage is to promote broad consumer understanding and knowledge of various health topics. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or treatment and before undertaking a new health care regimen, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.