One-third of a person’s life is spent sleeping, which is critical for physical and mental health.
The term sleep restriction (CSR) generally refers to sleeping less than seven hours per night, but more than four hours per night. An increase in neuropsychiatric disorders and other conditions can be associated with CSR, including impaired attention and learning.
Backed by science
There is evidence that probiotic supplementation reduces inflammation and oxidative stress caused by CSR . The majority of adults and adolescents experience insufficient sleep regularly. This is due to professional obligations and lifestyle habits, according to epidemiological studies.
According to growing evidence, CSR is associated with low-grade inflammation in the brain. This is indicated by an increase in inflammatory plasma cytokines and other markers of inflammation, such as the activation of microglia .
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Additionally, insufficient sleep can cause the body to accumulate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which results in an imbalance between the oxidant and antioxidant systems. Added ROS and RNS can react with carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and DNA, resulting in oxidative stress-related cellular damage and, in severe cases, even death.
Moreover, sleep deprivation affects energy homeostasis and has been associated with anxious levels of peptide hormones, including ghrelin, leptin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) . Recent years have seen an increase in interest in probiotics because of their ability to alleviate inflammation-related ailments.
Studies have shown that probiotics reduce peripheral and central inflammation in multiple ways [3, 4]. It involves rebalancing gut flora, improving gut permeability and modulating immune function with a decrease in proinflammatory cytokines.
In addition, probiotics can regulate the maturation and activity of microglia. Inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and neurodegenerative conditions may also be positively impacted by them. Moreover, both endogenous and exogenous ROS levels can be modulated by probiotics and bacterial metabolites, thereby elevating oxidative status.
By activating the silencing information regulator 2 associated enzymes 1 (SIRT1) pathway, a multi-strain probiotic formulation produced antioxidant and neuroprotective effects in a transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mouse model.
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Several studies have shown evidence that sleep deprivation can disturb the composition of gut microbiota [5, 6]. As a result of disrupted sleep, bacteria and their end-products may be able to pass through the intestinal epithelial barrier, causing an immune reaction and inflammation in the host.
An alteration in gut microbiota physiology may, at least in part, explain sleep loss-associated inflammation. Furthermore, probiotics have been shown to improve sleep .
By manipulating the gut microbiota with probiotics, sleep quality can be improved by reducing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a standard measure of sleep quality .
Oral supplementation with a multi-strain probiotic formulation has been shown to reduce CSR-induced oxidative stress and inflammation . A mixture of multiple probiotic strains (SLAB51 formulation sold as Agimixx®) or a vehicle was administered to normal sleeping mice as well as mice exposed to CSR, and biochemical and morphological techniques were used to assess the level of oxidative injury and inflammation in the brain and at a systemic level.
Findings look promising and forward-looking, as probiotic supplementation proves a positive strategy to counteract oxidative stress and inflammation promoted by sleep loss.
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