Protein deficiency: What your body is trying to tell you

Protein plays a pivotal role in our health, serving as the building block for muscles, bones, and more. Yet, many of us overlook its significance in our diets.

This oversight can lead to protein deficiency, a condition more common than you might think. Understanding the signs and effects of this deficiency is crucial for maintaining overall well-being.

Whether you’re a fitness enthusiast or someone just trying to stay healthy, understanding the role of protein is crucial for your overall well-being.

This blog aims to provide a comprehensive look into protein deficiency. We will explore its causes, how it affects your body, and practical steps to address it.

What are the effects of protein deficiency?

Understanding the impact of protein deficiency on your body is essential for maintaining good health [1]. Protein is not just about building muscle; it’s a vital component of every cell in your body. When your diet lacks adequate protein, the effects can be widespread and varied.

1. Edema

Often overlooked, edema is a notable consequence of protein deficiency. Edema is the medical term for swelling, commonly seen in areas like the feet, ankles, and legs. Why does this happen when protein is lacking in your diet? Let’s break it down:

  • Fluid balance disruption: One of protein’s critical roles is maintaining fluid balance in your blood vessels. Specifically, a protein called albumin helps keep fluid inside your blood vessels, preventing it from leaking into surrounding tissues.
  • Edema formation: When protein levels drop, particularly albumin, your blood vessels can’t hold onto fluid as effectively. This leads to fluid leaking into nearby tissues, causing swelling or edema.
  • Common sites: Edema often occurs in the lower extremities because of gravity. It’s worth noting that protein deficiency can also lead to edema in other parts of the body, although it’s less common.

Edema is not just about temporary discomfort; it can signal underlying health issues. Addressing protein deficiency is essential not only for reducing edema but also for maintaining overall health and well-being.

2. Muscle loss and weakness

Muscle loss and weakness are telltale signs of protein deficiency, affecting both your health and daily life.

Proteins are like the building blocks for your muscles. Without enough of them, your body begins to break down muscle tissue to meet its protein needs. This process leads to a condition known as muscle atrophy. Here’s what typically happens:

  • Decreased muscle mass: You might notice your muscles getting smaller or feeling less firm. This isn’t just about looks; it affects your strength and endurance.
  • Feeling weaker: Everyday tasks, like carrying groceries or climbing stairs, become more challenging. This isn’t just regular tiredness; it directly results from your muscles weakening.
  • Reduced physical performance: If you’re into sports or regular workouts, you’ll likely see a drop in your performance levels.

Combatting muscle loss involves ensuring you’re getting enough protein in your diet. This means including good protein sources in every meal, whether it’s meat, dairy, or plant-based options. Your muscles need protein to stay strong and healthy.

muscle loss and weakness

3. Immune system impairment

Protein deficiency doesn’t just affect muscles; it also weakens your immune system. Protein is a key ingredient for a strong defense against infections and illnesses.

When your body lacks protein, it struggles to produce enough antibodies and immune cells, leaving you more vulnerable. Here’s what happens:

  • Reduced antibody production: Antibodies are proteins themselves. Low protein means fewer antibodies to fight invaders like viruses and bacteria [2].
  • Weakened immune response: Your body’s ability to respond to infections slows down, making you more likely to catch colds or other infections.
  • Longer recovery times: If you fall sick, recovery might take longer than usual because your body doesn’t have the resources to fight effectively.

To keep your immune system up to the mark, it’s crucial to include a variety of protein sources in your diet.

This is especially important during flu season or in environments where you’re exposed to germs. A protein-rich diet is your ally in maintaining a robust immune system.

4. Hormonal imbalances

Hormonal imbalances are another less obvious but significant effect of protein deficiency. Proteins are crucial for synthesizing and regulating hormones, which are the body’s chemical messengers.

When protein intake falls short, it can disrupt this delicate balance, leading to various health issues. Here’s what might happen:

  • Metabolic slowdown: Proteins help in the production of hormones that regulate metabolism. A deficiency can slow down metabolic processes, affecting energy levels and weight management.
  • Mood fluctuations: Hormones like serotonin, which influence mood, require amino acids from protein for their production. A lack of protein can lead to mood swings and irritability.
  • Menstrual irregularities: For women, insufficient protein can disrupt menstrual cycles, leading to irregular or missed periods.

A balanced diet, rich in high-quality proteins, is essential for maintaining hormonal balance. This is important not just for physical health but also for mental well-being and overall quality of life. Remember, your hormones need the right building blocks to keep everything running smoothly.

5. Skin, hair, and nail problems

Protein deficiency can leave its mark on your skin, hair, and nails, often overlooked indicators of your overall health.

Proteins are vital for the repair and growth of these tissues. Here’s what you might notice if you’re not getting enough protein:

  • Skin issues: Your skin might lose its luster, becoming dry, flaky, or even more prone to rashes. Protein plays a crucial role in building and repairing skin cells.
  • Hair problems: Hair can become thin, brittle, or start falling out more than usual. Since hair is primarily made of protein, insufficient intake directly impacts its health and growth.
  • Nail changes: Nails might also suffer, becoming brittle or developing ridges. Strong, healthy nails depend on adequate protein [3].

To keep your skin glowing, hair shiny, and nails strong, ensuring a protein-rich diet is key. It’s not just about quantity; variety in protein sources also matters for comprehensive nutritional benefits.

What are the causes of protein deficiency?

Protein deficiency can occur for various reasons, and it’s not limited to a specific group of people. Understanding the common causes is crucial for recognizing potential risks and taking preventive measures. Here’s a detailed look at what can lead to protein deficiency:

Inadequate dietary intake

Let’s start with a common cause of protein deficiency: inadequate dietary intake. It happens when your regular meals don’t provide enough protein to meet your body’s needs. Here’s why it occurs:

  • Your diet may lack a variety of protein-rich foods. Perhaps you tend to stick to the same meals and overlook protein-rich options.
  • Extreme diets or calorie restriction often lead to insufficient protein intake. When you eat very few calories, you’re likely not getting enough protein, either.
  • If you or your family members are picky eaters, you might avoid protein-rich foods, which can contribute to protein deficiency.

Malabsorption conditions

Another significant cause of protein deficiency is malabsorption conditions, where your body struggles to absorb nutrients effectively. These conditions can have various underlying causes and often result in protein deficiency.

Conditions like celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, or irritable bowel syndrome can damage the intestinal lining, impairing nutrient absorption, including proteins.

Allergies to certain foods may lead to dietary restrictions, limiting your protein intake.

Some weight loss surgeries, like gastric bypass, can reduce the body’s ability to absorb nutrients, including proteins.

chronic illnesses

Chronic illnesses

Chronic illnesses can contribute to protein deficiency, affecting individuals with ongoing health conditions. 

In cases of kidney disease, protein intake may need to be restricted due to impaired kidney function. This restriction can lead to protein deficiency over time.

Liver conditions can disrupt the body’s ability to produce proteins, which can result in protein deficiency.

Both cancer itself and cancer treatments can increase protein requirements while simultaneously reducing appetite, making it challenging to meet those needs.


Let’s talk about a factor that affects us all at some point: aging. As we get older, our protein needs don’t disappear; in fact, they become even more crucial. 

It’s common for seniors to experience a decreased appetite, making it challenging to get enough protein through regular meals.

Aging often brings about muscle loss (sarcopenia). To counter this, older adults need to focus on protein-rich foods to support muscle health.

Protein plays a role in maintaining strong bones. As bones can become brittle with age, ensuring an adequate protein intake becomes vital [4].

Recognizing these common causes of protein deficiency is the first step toward prevention and addressing the issue. If you suspect protein deficiency, consulting a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian is essential for personalized guidance and dietary adjustments.

Final takeaways

Understanding the causes and effects of protein deficiency is essential for maintaining optimal health and well-being.

Protein is a fundamental building block for our bodies, playing a vital role in various physiological processes. Without adequate protein, we may face a range of health issues, from muscle weakness to compromised immune function.

Protein deficiency is preventable and manageable with the right knowledge and actions. By making informed choices and seeking appropriate support, we can ensure that protein remains a cornerstone of our health and vitality.


What are the main symptoms of protein deficiency?

The main symptoms of protein deficiency include muscle weakness, fatigue, hair loss, and skin issues.

How does protein deficiency affect the body?

Protein deficiency can lead to muscle loss, weakened immune function, and impaired wound healing, among other health problems.

How much is too much protein in a day?

Too much protein in a day varies by individual needs but generally should not exceed 2.2 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight.

What does low protein in the body indicate?

Low protein in the body can indicate insufficient intake or underlying health conditions, potentially leading to muscle wasting and compromised overall health.


The information included in this article is for informational purposes only. The purpose of this webpage is to promote broad consumer understanding and knowledge of various health topics. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or treatment and before undertaking a new health care regimen, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.