Water aerobics: Benefits, exercises, equipment, safety

Water aerobics, often seen as a refreshing twist to conventional workouts, has steadily gained popularity as a fun, low-impact form of exercise suitable for all ages and fitness levels.

This engaging water-based activity combines aerobic exercise with strength training, offering a balanced workout regime.

What sets it apart is its unique setting – the pool – where buoyancy lessens the strain on joints, making it an ideal choice for those seeking a gentler approach to fitness.

In this guide, we will explore the various facets of water aerobics. From its health benefits to the different exercises you can try, we’ve got it all covered.

You’ll also discover the necessary equipment to enhance your workout and learn vital safety tips to ensure a rewarding and secure exercise experience.

What makes water aerobics unique?

Water aerobics, a refreshing blend of cardiovascular and strength training exercises, takes place in a pool, offering a unique workout environment [1].

This fitness approach is known for its low-impact nature, making it a perfect choice for individuals at all fitness levels and ages. 

It’s especially beneficial for those seeking a gentler form of exercise due to joint issues, pregnancy, or injury rehabilitation.

The buoyancy of water reduces stress on the body, particularly on the joints, allowing for a workout that’s both effective and comfortable. 

Water provides natural resistance, which intensifies movements, leading to improved muscle tone and strength without the need for heavy weights.

Additionally, the water’s resistance and the need to counteract it engage multiple muscle groups, ensuring a balanced, full-body workout.

What are the benefits of water aerobics?

Water aerobics has emerged as a popular and effective way to maintain fitness. It’s a versatile workout suitable for everyone, from young adults to seniors, and offers a range of health benefits.

1. Low-impact nature

It is a standout choice for a low-impact workout, offering numerous benefits:

  • Joint-friendly: The buoyancy of water supports your body, significantly reducing the stress on joints. This makes it an excellent option for those with joint pain or arthritis.
  • Injury recovery: If you’re recovering from an injury, water aerobics provides a safe way to exercise without putting undue pressure on the injured area.
  • Pregnancy-friendly: For expectant mothers, the low-impact nature ensures a safer exercise environment, easing the pressure on the spine and pelvis.
  • Accessible to all ages: Seniors and those just starting their fitness journey can benefit immensely from the gentleness of water aerobics, making it an accessible exercise for all age groups.

This gentle approach to fitness doesn’t compromise on effectiveness, making water aerobics a versatile workout choice.

2. Cardiovascular health

Water aerobics is not just a refreshing workout but also a powerful booster for your heart health:

  • Enhanced circulation: The exercise gets your blood flowing, improving overall circulation and heart function.
  • Strengthens the heart: Regular water aerobics can strengthen your heart, making it more efficient at pumping blood.
  • Lowers blood pressure: It’s effective in reducing blood pressure and improving heart rate, which is crucial for overall cardiovascular health.
  • Reduces heart disease risk: Engaging in this form of exercise regularly can lower the risk of heart-related diseases [2].
  • Improves lung capacity: Alongside heart health, water aerobics also enhances lung function, contributing to better respiratory health.

Incorporating water aerobics into your routine offers a fun way to keep your heart healthy and strong.

strength and toning
Photograph: NomadSoul1/Envato

3. Strength and toning

An excellent way to build strength and tone muscles, thanks to the unique properties of water:

  • Natural resistance: Water provides resistance in every direction, which challenges and strengthens muscles more effectively than many land-based exercises.
  • Full-body workout: It engages multiple muscle groups simultaneously, ensuring a balanced workout for your entire body.
  • Builds core strength: The need to stabilize yourself in water naturally works your core muscles, improving posture and balance.
  • Enhances muscle endurance: Regular sessions increase muscle endurance, allowing you to perform daily activities with less fatigue.
  • Low risk of muscle strain: The supportive nature of water reduces the risk of muscle strain, making it safe for people of all fitness levels.

Water aerobics is an effective way to achieve toned muscles and increased strength without the high impact of traditional strength training.

4. Flexibility and balance

Water aerobics is not only about strength and cardio; it’s also fantastic for improving flexibility and balance:

  • Enhanced range of motion: The buoyancy of water allows for easier and more fluid movements, helping to increase your range of motion.
  • Improves flexibility: Regularly stretching and moving in water helps loosen and lengthen muscles, leading to better flexibility [3].
  • Balance training: The unstable environment of water challenges your balance, engaging core muscles and improving overall stability.
  • Safe for all levels: For beginners or those with balance issues, water provides a safe medium to work on these skills without fear of falling.
  • Reduces stiffness: The warm temperature of pool water can help in reducing stiffness, making it easier to move and balance.

Incorporating water aerobics into your routine can lead to more graceful, balanced, and flexible movements in everyday life.

5. Weight loss and calorie burn

Water aerobics is an effective way to lose weight and burn calories, offering a unique blend of fun and fitness:

  • High calorie burn: The resistance of water means your body works harder, burning more calories than many traditional exercises.
  • Boosts metabolism: Regular water aerobics can increase your metabolic rate, aiding in faster calorie burn even when you’re not exercising.
  • Ideal for all body types: It’s suitable for people of all shapes and sizes, providing a comfortable and effective workout environment.
  • Customizable intensity: You can adjust the intensity of your workout to match your fitness level, ensuring you burn calories effectively without overexertion.
  • Sustainable weight loss: Unlike some high-impact exercises, water aerobics is enjoyable and sustainable, making it easier to stick to a weight loss regime.

Water aerobics provides a refreshing and enjoyable way to achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

What are examples of water exercises?

There’s a wide range of exercises that can be done in the water, each offering its own set of benefits. Whether you’re a beginner or a seasoned athlete, water aerobics can be tailored to suit your fitness level.

Let’s dive into some of the exercises you can incorporate into your water aerobics routine.

Water walking or jogging

Water walking or jogging is a fantastic starter exercise in water aerobics, ideal for warming up or as a main workout component:

  • Simply walk or jog through the water, either in the shallow end or deeper water for more resistance.
  • Control the intensity by altering your speed and using arm movements. Faster movements equal a more intense workout.
  • This exercise works your legs, core, and arms, providing a full-body workout [4].
  • Great for beginners and those looking for a low-intensity workout, but can be challenging for advanced levels too.
  • It increases your heart rate, offering cardiovascular benefits similar to regular walking or jogging.

Water walking or jogging is an accessible, versatile exercise that effectively kickstarts your water workout, setting a positive tone for the rest of your session.

Leg lifts

Leg lifts in water aerobics are an excellent way to target your lower body, especially your thighs and glutes:

  • Stand in the water and lift your legs one at a time, either to the front, side, or back. Use the pool wall for support if needed.
  • Increase the challenge by lifting your legs higher or holding them in the lifted position for a few seconds.
  • As you lift your legs, your core engages to keep you balanced, offering a great core workout.
  • Regular leg lifts in water can also improve your flexibility, especially in your hip flexors and legs.
  • This exercise is adaptable for different fitness levels and can be done in both shallow and deep water.

Leg lifts are a simple yet effective exercise that strengthens and tones your lower body while also improving your balance and flexibility.

Arm curls

Arm curls in water aerobics are a fantastic exercise for toning and strengthening the upper body, particularly the biceps and forearms:

  • Perform arm curls in the water using the natural resistance of water or with water weights for added intensity.
  • Make sure to fully extend and curl your arms to get the most benefit from each movement.
  • As you perform the curls, your core naturally engages to maintain balance, offering an additional workout.
  • This exercise can be easily adjusted to suit your fitness level, making it ideal for both beginners and advanced participants.
  • The water’s buoyancy makes this exercise gentle on the joints, reducing the risk of strain or injury.

Arm curls in water provide an excellent way to build upper body strength without the harsh impact of traditional weightlifting, making them a key exercise in any water aerobics routine.

Water jumping jacks

Water jumping jacks are a dynamic and fun exercise in water aerobics, ideal for boosting cardiovascular health and working multiple muscle groups:

  • This exercise involves both the arms and legs, providing a full-body workout.
  • Like their land counterpart, water jumping jacks are excellent for getting your heart rate up and improving cardiovascular endurance.
  • The water’s buoyancy reduces impact on joints, making it a safe option for those with joint concerns [5].
  • The resistance of the water adds an extra challenge, helping to strengthen and tone your muscles.
  • You can adjust the intensity by altering the speed or range of motion, making it perfect for everyone.

Water jumping jacks are not only effective but also a lively addition to your water aerobics routine, making exercise feel like fun.

Kickboard moves

Kickboard exercises in water aerobics are great for focusing on lower body strength and improving swimming techniques:

  • Using a kickboard isolates your legs, providing a focused workout for your thighs, calves, and glutes.
  • These exercises can improve your kicking technique, which is essential for swimming efficiency.
  • Alter the speed of your kicks to increase or decrease the workout’s intensity.
  • Holding the kickboard requires core strength, offering a subtle yet effective core workout.
  • Try different kick styles, like flutter kicks or breaststroke kicks, to add variety and challenge different muscle groups.

Kickboard exercises in water aerobics offer a unique way to enhance leg strength and swimming ability, making them a valuable addition to your aquatic fitness routine.

What equipment is used in water aerobics?

Water aerobics, while accessible and effective with minimal equipment, can be enhanced with the right gear. This equipment not only adds variety to your workouts but also increases their effectiveness.

Let’s take a look at some of the key equipment used in water aerobics.


Selecting the right swimwear for water aerobics is essential for both comfort and performance:

  • Choose a suit that fits well, offering enough support without restricting movement.
  • Opt for chlorine-resistant fabrics to ensure your swimwear lasts longer despite frequent exposure to pool chemicals.
  • Consider styles that stay in place during vigorous movements; one-piece suits or secure two-pieces are excellent choices.
  • Depending on your personal preference, look for swimwear that provides the coverage you’re comfortable with.
  • Extra features like built-in bras or adjustable straps can enhance comfort and fit.

The right swimwear can make a significant difference in your water aerobics experience, ensuring you stay focused on your workout rather than adjusting your outfit.

Water shoes

Water shoes are a crucial component for a safe and effective water aerobics session:

  • They provide the necessary grip on slippery pool floors, reducing the risk of slips and falls.
  • Water shoes safeguard your feet from rough surfaces and unseen objects in the pool.
  • The right pair can improve your stability and balance, making exercises more effective.
  • Look for shoes that fit snugly but comfortably, allowing easy and flexible movement.
  • Opt for shoes made from quick-drying, breathable materials to maintain foot hygiene.

Investing in a good pair of water shoes is essential for ensuring safety, comfort, and enhanced performance in your water aerobics routine.


Kickboards are an essential tool in water aerobics, offering several benefits:

  • They allow you to concentrate on leg movements and strength, isolating lower body muscles effectively.
  • Kickboards are great for honing kicking techniques, beneficial for overall swimming proficiency [6].
  • You can use them for various exercises, from simple leg kicks to more advanced drills.
  • They provide additional buoyancy, making it easier to maintain proper form during exercises.
  • Whether you’re a beginner or a seasoned swimmer, kickboards add value to your workout routine.

Kickboards not only enhance specific muscle workouts but also bring variety and challenge to your water aerobics sessions.

Water dumbbells

Water dumbbells are a key piece of equipment in water aerobics, enhancing your workout in several ways:

  • They add resistance to arm movements, intensifying upper body exercises.
  • Suitable for a range of exercises, from bicep curls to chest flies.
  • Available in various sizes and buoyancies, they cater to different fitness levels.
  • They effectively target and strengthen the arm, shoulder, and chest muscles.
  • The buoyancy reduces strain on joints, making strength training safer and more comfortable.

Incorporating water dumbbells into your routine adds a new dimension to your workout, challenging your muscles in a way that’s both effective and enjoyable.

Aqua noodles

Aqua noodles are a versatile and fun addition to any water aerobics routine:

  • They adapt to various exercises, providing buoyancy and support.
  • Great for balance-focused exercises, they engage and strengthen the core muscles.
  • Whether you’re a beginner or advanced, aqua noodles can be utilized effectively in your workout.
  • Use them for floating, resistance training, or as a support tool for different movements.
  • Their lightweight design makes them easy to maneuver during exercises.

Incorporating aqua noodles into your water aerobics sessions can add an element of challenge and fun, enhancing both the enjoyment and effectiveness of your workout.

aqua noodles
Photograph: macniak/Envato

What are the essential safety precautions for aerobic exercise?

Safety is paramount in any exercise regimen, and water aerobics is no exception. It’s essential to take proper precautions to ensure a safe and enjoyable workout experience. Let’s look at some important safety tips to keep in mind.

1. Know your swimming skills

Understanding your swimming abilities is crucial before diving into water aerobics:

  • Self-assessment: Honestly evaluate your comfort level and skills in the water. Can you swim, float, and feel at ease in different depths?
  • Classes matched to skill level: Choose water aerobics classes that align with your swimming proficiency. Beginners might prefer shallow water sessions [7].
  • Don’t overestimate your ability: If you’re not a strong swimmer, stay in shallower areas and consider using flotation devices for additional safety.
  • Communicate with instructors: Let your instructor know about your swimming skills so they can provide appropriate guidance and support.
  • Gradual progression: If you’re new to swimming, gradually increase your time and comfort level in the water before attempting more advanced water aerobics exercises.

Recognizing your swimming strengths and limits helps ensure a safe and enjoyable water aerobics experience.

2. Warm-up and cool down

Incorporating warm-up and cool-down routines in your water aerobics session is essential for a safe and effective workout:


  • Start with light activities like water walking or gentle swimming to gradually increase your heart rate.
  • Include dynamic stretches or range-of-motion exercises to loosen up your muscles and joints.
  • Spend about 5-10 minutes warming up to prepare your body for more intense exercises.

Cool down:

  • After the main workout, gradually reduce the intensity of your activity to lower your heart rate.
  • Perform static stretches in the water, focusing on major muscle groups used during your session.
  • Spend another 5-10 minutes cooling down to help your body recover and prevent muscle stiffness.

A proper warm-up activates your muscles for the workout ahead, while a cool-down helps in recovery, ensuring a holistic and injury-free water aerobics experience.

3. Use proper equipment

Using the right equipment is key to a safe and effective water aerobics session:

  • Wear comfortable, well-fitted swimwear that withstands chlorine and movement.
  • Protect your feet and enhance grip with proper water shoes.
  • Regularly inspect items like water dumbbells, noodles, and kickboards for wear and tear.
  • Choose equipment that matches your fitness level; avoid overly heavy items.
  • If you’re not a strong swimmer, use flotation belts or vests for safety.
  • Get advice from your instructor on the right equipment for your specific needs.

Using suitable equipment not only enhances your workout but also minimizes the risk of injury, ensuring a rewarding water aerobics experience.

4. Stay hydrated

Staying hydrated is crucial during water aerobics, even if you don’t feel thirsty:

  • You may not notice it, but your body sweats in water, leading to fluid loss.
  • Take regular breaks to sip water, ideally every 15-20 minutes during your workout.
  • Drink water before starting and rehydrate after finishing your session.
  • Be aware of symptoms like dizziness or fatigue, which might indicate dehydration.
  • These can contribute to dehydration, so it’s best to avoid them before your workout.

Remember, being in water doesn’t negate the need for hydration. Drinking enough water is key to maintaining energy levels and ensuring a safe and effective workout [8].

5. Understand the depth of the pool

Being aware of the pool’s depth is essential for a safe water aerobics experience:

  • Choose a depth that matches your swimming ability and comfort level. Beginners may prefer shallower areas.
  • Some exercises are more suited to shallow water, while others, like deep-water running, require deeper areas.
  • Pay attention when moving from shallow to deep water, especially in pools with gradual depth changes.
  • If unsure, ask the instructor or pool staff about the best areas for your exercise routine.
  • Always prioritize safety – if you’re not comfortable in deeper water, stick to shallower areas.

Understanding the pool’s depth helps you select the right spot for your workout, ensuring both safety and effectiveness in your water aerobics routine.


In the world of water aerobics, it’s clear that this form of exercise offers a unique combination of benefits.

It stands out as a low-impact, high-reward activity suitable for everyone, regardless of age or fitness level.

The gentle nature of water aerobics makes it an ideal choice for those with joint concerns, while its effectiveness in building strength, improving cardiovascular health, and aiding weight loss caters to the fitness enthusiast in everyone.

Whether you’re looking for a new way to stay fit, recover from an injury, or just break the monotony of your current workout routine, water aerobics offers a refreshing alternative.

So why wait? Dive into water aerobics and experience a world of fitness that is as enjoyable as it is beneficial.


What are the benefits of water aerobics?

Benefits include improved cardiovascular health, increased muscle strength and flexibility, weight loss, low impact on joints, and enhanced mental wellness due to its fun and social nature.

What equipment is used for water aerobics?

Common equipment includes swimwear, water shoes, water dumbbells, noodles, kickboards, and flotation devices, which enhance the workout’s effectiveness and safety.

What are the health components of water aerobics?

The health components of water aerobics include cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, joint mobility, and improved body composition through fat loss and muscle toning.

How do you use water exercise equipment?

Water exercise equipment like dumbbells and noodles are used to add resistance and support in various exercises, helping to target specific muscle groups and improve balance and strength.

[1] https://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/a-z/water-aerobics
[2] https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/exercise-and-the-heart
[3] https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/stretching/art-20047931
[4] https://www.verywellfit.com/compound-exercises-for-the-entire-body-1231029
[5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8955208/
[6] https://soulcap.com/blogs/editorial/how-to-use-a-kickboard-to-improve-your-swimming
[7] https://www.aarp.org/health/healthy-living/info-2023/water-aerobics.html
[8] https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/Exercise-the-low-down-on-water-and-drinks

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